Effects of replacing fishmeal with black soldier fly larval meal in the diets of grower-finishing guinea fowls reared under tropical conditions
The study was conducted with the view to determine the impact of replacing fishmeal with black soldier fly larval meal (BSFLM) on growing guinea fowls. BSFLM replaced fishmeal (3% in the control diet) in the ratios of 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% to produce six dietary treatments, which were iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous. Two hundred and forty-eight-week old guinea fowls with mean live weight of 273.2 ± 10.9 g were tagged, weighted, and randomly assigned to 24 (6 × 4) floor pens; each pen was treated as a replicate. Feed and water were provided ad libitum during the entire period, which lasted 10 weeks. Feed consumption differed among the treatment groups (P = 0.0072) with the 100% fishmeal diets recording the lowest. Daily gain was significantly (P = 0.009) higher for birds fed high BSFLM diets compared to the control (100% fishmeal diet). The inclusion of BSFLM in the diets elicited positive linear effect on weight gains of the guinea fowls (R2 = 0.91) with increasing concentration resulting in higher live weight gains. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) also differed between treatments (P < 0.05) but similar for the 100% fishmeal (control) and 100% BSFLM diets. Organ and haematopoitic integrity were equally assured regardless of levels of the protein sources fed to the birds. Generally, meats from birds fed 60 to 100% BSFLM and from hens were more acceptable. A study to evaluate the economics of utilising BSFLM in guinea fowl production is recommended.
KeywordsBlood chemistry Carcass Haematology Organoleptic properties Protein
The project team expresses sincere appreciation to the management and staff of CSIR-Animal Research Institute for the unrestrained access to its facilities, laboratories, logistics and administrative support. Much gratitude is extended to CABI, Ghana for supporting in a variety of ways to make this study run smoothly.
EDIF and University of Stirling, UK are profoundly appreciated for funding and also for providing technical support particularly in the area of larvae production.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
- A.O.A.C 1990. Official methods of analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists (15th ed.), Arlington, VAGoogle Scholar
- Al-Qazzaz, M. F. A., Ismail, D., Akit, H., and Idris, L. H. 2016. Effect of using insect larvae meal as a complete protein source on quality and productivity characteristics of laying hens. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 45(9), 518–523. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1806-92902016000900003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Anankware, P. J., Fening, K. O., Osekre, E. and Obeng-Ofori, D. 2015. Insects as food and feed: a review. International Journal of Agricultural Research and Review, 3(1), 143–151.Google Scholar
- Belitz, H. D., Grosch, W. and Schieberle, P. 2009. Food chemistry. Berlin, Germany: Springer.Google Scholar
- Crouse, J. D., Busboom, J. R., Field, R. A. and Ferrell, C. L. 1981. The effects of breed, diet, sex, location and slaughter weight on lamb growth, carcass composition and meat flavor. Journal of Animal Sciences, 57, 1146–1153.Google Scholar
- Diener, S., Zurbrugg, C., Gutierrez, F. R., Nguyen, D. H., Morel, A., Koottatep, T. and Tockner, K., 2011. Black soldier fly larvae for organic waste treatment—prospects and constraints. In: Proceedings of the WasteSafe 2011—2nd International Conference on Solid Waste Management in the Developing Countries, February 13–15, 2011, Khulna, Bangladesh.Google Scholar
- Fanatico, A. C., Pillai, P. B., Emmert, J. L. and Owens, C. M. 2007. Meat quality of slow- and fast-growing chicken genotypes fed low-nutrient or standard diets and raised indoors or with outdoor access. Poultry Science, 86:2245–2255. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/86.10.2245 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kaplan, A. and Szabo, L. L.1983. Clinical chemistry. Interpretation and techniques. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia. 81–86, 127, 191–194, 203–205.Google Scholar
- Lehninger, A. L. 1984. Principles of biochemistry. 3rd Edition. Anderson, S and Fox, J. (eds.). Worth Publishers, Inc. 709–718Google Scholar
- Moss, D. W., Henderson, A. R. and Kachmar, J. F. 1987. Enzymes. Fundamentals of clinical chemistry. 3rd Edition. Tietz, N. W. (Ed.). W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia. 365–372Google Scholar
- Newton, G. L.; Sheppard, D. C.; Watson, D. W.; Burtle, G. J.; Dove, C. R.; Tomberlin, J. K. and Thelen, E. E. 2005. The black soldier fly Hermetia illucens as a manure management resource recovery tool. In: Proceeding of symposium on the state of the science of animal manure and waste management, San Antonio, TX, USA.Google Scholar
- Pauzenga, U. 1985. Feeding parent stock. Zootechnica International1985, 22–24.Google Scholar
- Samour, J. 2013. Diagnostic value of hematology. In G. Harrison & T. Lightfoot (Eds.), Clinical avian medicine (volume II, pp. 587–610). Brenthwood: Harrison’s Bird Foods. Retrieved 16 June 2017 from www.avianmedicine.net/content/uploads/2013/05/22_hematology.pdf
- Teye, G. A., Gya, P., and Dei, H. K. 2000. Energy requirement of Guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) as meat bird in a hot savannah climate. Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science, 36:65–68Google Scholar
- Teye, G. A, Sheard, P. R., Whittington, F. M., Nute, G. R., Stewart, A. and Wood, J. D. 2006. Influence of dietary oils and protein level on pork quality. 1. Effects on muscle fatty acid composition, carcass, meat and eating quality. Meat Science, 73(1):157–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2005.11.010.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tran G., Gnaedinger C., Mélin C. 2015. Black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens). Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/16388
- Van Huis, A., Van Itterbeck, J., Klunder, H., Mertens, E., Halloran, A., Muir, G. and Vantomme, P. 2013. Edible insects’ future prospects for food and feed security. FAO forestry paper 171, Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy.Google Scholar
- Vani, N. D., Modi, V. K., Kavitha, S., Sachindra, N. M. and Mahendrakar, N. S. 2006. Degradation of inosine-5′-monophosphate (IMP) in aqueous and in layering chicken muscle fibre systems: effect of pH and temperature. LWT-Food Science Technology, 39:627–632. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2005.05.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- VSN International, 2011. GenStat for Windows 14th edition. (VSN International, Hemel Hempstead, UK. Web page: GenStat.co.uk)
- Wallace, P. A., Wang, Q. X., Cao, T., Marfo, E. K. and Yang, L. 2012. Studies on the influence of laboratory prepared soybean peptide on yellow feather broiler chicks II: physiologic, immunologic and IGF-1 status. Ghanaian Journal of Animal Science. 6(1): 41–52Google Scholar
- Wallace, P. A., Nyameasem, J. K., Adu-Aboagye, G., Affedzie-Obrese, S., Nkegbe, E. K., Karbo, N., Murray, F., Leschen, W. and Maquart, P-O. 2017. Impact of black soldier fly larval meal on growth performance, apparent digestibility, haematological and blood chemistry indices of guinea fowl starter keets under tropical conditions. Tropical Animal Health and Production. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-017-1312-x CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar