Advertisement

Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 50, Issue 6, pp 1355–1363 | Cite as

Cross-sectional prevalence of Fasciola gigantica infections in beef cattle in Botswana

  • M. Ernest Mochankana
  • Ian D. Robertson
Regular Articles
  • 49 Downloads

Abstract

A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and distribution of Fasciola gigantica infections in communally grazed and ranch-grazed beef cattle through coprological examination. A total of 8646 cattle (4618 adults, 2843 weaners and 1185 calves) faecal samples were collected during the 24 months of study. Results from this study indicated that only 64 (0.74%; 95% CI 0.57, 0.94%) of the samples were positive for F. gigantica eggs. The positive samples were detected in one (Central) of the six study districts and was restricted to the Tuli Block (commercial) farms in Machaneng village in eastern Botswana. The prevalence of fluke eggs was significantly higher in adult cattle (12.85%; 95% CI 9.72, 16.54%) than weaners (6.49%; 95% CI 3.40, 11.06%) and calves (0.79%; 95% CI 0.02, 4.31%), (χ2(2) = 19.01, p < 0.001). Thus, adults (OR = 18.57; 95% CI 2.54, 135.81%) were approximately 20 times more likely to be infected than calves. By taking liver inspection as a gold standard for diagnosis of fasciolosis, the sensitivity of the sedimentation technique was found to be 72.41% and the specificity 100%, with moderate relationship (κ = 0.53; 95% CI 0.31–0.75) between the two methods. This study has demonstrated that infection of cattle from Botswana, with F. gigantica, was low and distribution of the fluke appeared to be linked to suitable environmental conditions for the intermediate host snail. However, detailed surveillance studies, involving more cattle and areas, are required to verify the true prevalence. Such information would assist in the design of appropriate, strategic and effective fluke control programmes.

Keywords

Beef cattle Botswana Coprology Fasciola gigantica Prevalence 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources and Murdoch University for the financial support they provided for this study. We are also grateful to the District Veterinary Officers and Field Assistants in Botswana for the field work assistance rendered, and the farmers for their kindness and cooperation during this study. We would like also thank the Department of Meteorological Services in Gaborone for their kindness in providing climatic data of the districts included in the study.

Compliance with ethical standards

The study was approved by Murdoch University Research Animal Ethics Committee.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Abunna, F., Asfaw, L., Megersa, B., Regassa, A., 2010, Bovine fasciolosis: coprological, abattoir survey and its economic impact due to liver condemnation at Soddo municipal abattoir, Southern Ethiopia. Tropical Animal Health and Production 42, 289–292.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Adedokun, O.A., Ayinmode, A.B., Fagbemi, B.O., 2008, Seasonal prevalence of Fasciola gigantica infection among the sexes in Nigerian cattle. Veterinary Research 2, 12–14.Google Scholar
  3. Amato, S.B., De Rezende, H.E.B., Gomes, D.C., Da Serra Freire, N.M., 1986, Epidemiology of Fasciola hepatica infection in the Paraíba river valley, São Paulo, Brasil. Veterinary Parasitology 22, 275–284.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Asanji, M.F., Williams, M.O., 1984, The effect of sex on seasonal variation in single and double infection of cattle in sierra leone by Dicrocoelium hospes and Faciola gigantica. Veterinary Parasitology 15, 247–255.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Awad, W.S., Ibrahim, A.K., Salib, F.A., 2009, Using indirect ELISA to assess different antigens for the serodiagnosis of Fasciola gigantica infection in cattle, sheep and donkeys. Research in Veterinary Science 86, 466–471.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Baldock, F.C., Arthur, R.J., 1985, A survey of fascioliasis in beef cattle killed at abattoirs in southern Queensland. Australian Veterinary Journal 62, 324–326.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bitakaramire, P.K., Bwangamoi, O., 1969, Experimental infection of calves with Fasciola gigantica. Experimental Parasitology 25, 353–357.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bouvry, M., Rau, M.E., 1986, Seasonal variations in egg passage of Fasciola hepatica in dairy cows in Quebec. Veterinary Parasitology 22, 267–273.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Copeman, D.B., Copland, R.S. 2008. Importance and potential impact of liver fluke in cattle and buffalo. In Overcoming liver fluke as a constraint to ruminant production in south-east Asia, Gray, G.D., Copland, R.S., Copeman, D.B., eds. (Canberra), pp. 21–26.Google Scholar
  10. Department of Meteorological Services, D 2003. Seasonal rainfall forecast for Botswana Services, M., ed.(Gaborone, Weather and Agrometeorological Bulletin).Google Scholar
  11. Department of Veterinary Services, D 2008. Livestock production in Botswana (Gaborone, Ministry of Agriculture).Google Scholar
  12. Dohoo, I., Martin, W., Stryhn, H., 2009, Veterinary Epidemiologic Research, Second. VER Inc, Charlottetown.Google Scholar
  13. Dorchies, P. 2006. Flukes: Old parasites but new emergence. In World Buiatrics Congress XXIV, Dorchies, P., ed. (Nice, France, IVIS).Google Scholar
  14. Ducommun, D., Pfister, K., 1991, Prevalence and distribution of Dicrocoelium dendriticum and Fasciola hepatica infections in cattle in Switzerland. Parasitology Research 77, 364–366.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Esteban, J.G., Gonzalez, C., Curtale, F., Munoz-Antoli, C., Valero, M.A., Bargues, M.D., Sayed, M., El Wakeel, A.A.W., Abdel-Wahab, Y., Montresor, A., Engels, D., Savioli, L., Mas-Coma, S., 2003, Hyperendemic fascioliasis associated with schistosomiasis in villages in the Nile Delta of Egypt. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 69, 429–437.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. FAO 1994. Diseases of domestic animals caused by flukes. In Epidemiology, diagnosis and control of Fasciola, Paramphistomum, Dicrocoelium, Eurytrema and Schistosoma infections of ruminants in developing countries (Rome, FAO), pp. 1–34.Google Scholar
  17. Faria, R.N., Cury, M.C., Lima, W.S., 2005, Prevalence and dynamics of natural infection with Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758) in Brazilian cattle. Revue de Medicine Veterinaire 156, 85–86.Google Scholar
  18. Foreyt, W.J., 2001, Veterinary Parasitology Reference Manual, Fifth. Blackwell Science Company, Ames, 235 p.Google Scholar
  19. Gonzalez-Lanza, C., Manga-Gonzalez, Y., Del-Pozo-Carnero, P., Hidalgo-Argüello, R., 1989, Dynamics of elimination of the eggs of Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda, Digenea) in the faeces of cattle in the Porma Basin, Spain. Veterinary Parasitology 34, 35–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Harrison, L., Hammond, J., Sewell, M., 1996, Studies on helminthosis at the centre for tropical veterinary medicine (CTVM). Tropical Animal Health and Production 28, 23–39.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Hillyer, G.V., 1999, Immunodiagnosis of human and animal fasciolosis, In: Dalton, J.P. (Ed.) Fasciolosis. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, pp. 435–447.Google Scholar
  22. Hillyer, G.V., de Galanes, M.S., Buchón, P., Bjorland, J., 1996, Herd evaluation by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of Fasciola hepatica infection in sheep and cattle from the Altiplano of Bolivia. Veterinary Parasitology 61, 211–220.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Holland, W.G., Luong, T.T., Nguyen, L.A., Do, T.T., Vercruysse, J., 2000, The epidemiology of nematode and fluke infections in cattle in the Red River Delta in Vietnam. Veterinary Parasitology 93, 141–147.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Hurtrez-Boussès, S., Meunier, C., Durand, P., Renaud, F., 2001, Dynamics of host-parasite interactions: the example of population biology of the liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica). Microbes and Infection 3, 841–849.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Kato, M., Murakami, Y., Shimizu, M., Yamamoto, H., Yonemoto, Y., Ishii, K., Kira, S., 2005, Survey of cattle fasciolosis in Tsumaya abattoir. Journal of Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine 10, 162–165.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Keyyu, J.D., Kyvsgaard, N.C., Monrad, J., Kassuku, A.A., 2005a, Epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle on traditional, small-scale dairy and large-scale dairy farms in Iringa district, Tanzania. Veterinary Parasitology 127, 285–294.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Keyyu, J.D., Monrad, J., Kyvsgaard, N.C., Kassuku, A.A., 2005b, Epidemiology of Fasciola gigantica and Amphistomes in Cattle on Traditional, Small-scale Dairy and Large-scale Dairy Farms in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania. Tropical Animal Health and Production 37, 303–314.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Keyyu, J., Kassuku, A., Msalilwa, L., Monrad, J., Kyvsgaard, N., 2006, Cross-sectional Prevalence of Helminth Infections in Cattle on Traditional, Small-scale and Large-scale Dairy Farms in Iringa District, Tanzania. Veterinary Research Communications 30, 45–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Khan, M.K., Sajid, M.S., Khan, M.N., Iqbal, Z., Iqbal, M.U., 2009, Bovine fasciolosis: Prevalence, effects of treatment on productivity and cost benefit analysis in five districts of Punjab, Pakistan. Research in Veterinary Science 87, 70–75.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Kithuka, J.M., Maingi, N., Njeruh, F.M., Ombui, J.N., 2002, The prevalence and economic importance of bovine fasciolosis in Kenya: An analysis of abattoir data. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 69, 255–262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Kuchai, J.A., Chishti, M.Z., Zaki, M.M., Dar Muzaffar Rasool, S.A., Ahmad, J., Tak, H., 2011, Some epidemiological aspects of fasciolosis among cattle of Ladakh. Global Veterinaria 7, 342–346.Google Scholar
  32. Mage, C., Bourgne, H., Toullieu, J., Rondelaud, D., Dreyfuss, G., 2002, Fasciola hepatica and Paramphistomum daubney: Changes in prevalences of natural infections in cattle and in Lymnaea truncatula from central France over the past 12 years. Veterinary Research 33, 439–447.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Malone, J.B., Loyacano, A.F., Hugh-Jones, M.E., Corkum, K.C., 1984, A three-year study on seasonal transmission and control of Fasciola hepatica of cattle in Louisiana. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 3, 131–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Malone, J.B., Gommes, R., Hansen, J., Yilma, J.M., Slingenberg, J., Snijders, F., Nachtergaele, F., Ataman, E., 1998, A geographic information system on the potential distribution and abundance of Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica in east Africa based on Food and Agriculture Organization databases. Veterinary Parasitology 78, 87–101.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Maqbool, A., Hayat, C., Hashmi, H., 2002, Epidemiology of fasciolosis in buffaloes under different management conditions. Veterinary Microbiology 52, 414–416.Google Scholar
  36. McGavin, M.D., Zachary, J.F., 2007, Pathologic basis of veterinary disease, 4th. Mosby Elsevier, St Louis, Missouri.Google Scholar
  37. Mekroud, A., Benakhla, A., Vignoles, P., Rondelaud, D., Dreyfuss, G., 2004, Preliminary studies on the prevalence of natural fasciolosis in cattle, sheep and the host snail (Galba truncatula) in north-eastern Algeria. Parasitology Research 92, 502–505.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Molina, E.C., 2005. Comparison of host-parasite relationships of Fasciola gigantica infection in cattle (Bos indicus) and swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), PhD Thesis. James Cook University, Townsville, North Queensland.Google Scholar
  39. Morel, A., Mahato, S., 1987, Epidemiology of fascioliasis in the koshi hills of Nepal. Tropical Animal Health and Production 19, 33–38.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Mungube, E., Bauni, S., Tenhagen, B.A., Wamae, L., Nginyi, J., Mugambi, J., 2006, The prevalence and economic significance of Fasciola gigantica and Stilesia hepatica in slaughtered animals in the semi-arid coastal Kenya. Tropical Animal Health and Production 38, 475–483.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Munguía-Xóchihua, J., Ibarra-Velarde, F., Ducoing-Watty, A., Montenegro-Cristino, N., Quiroz-Romero, H., 2007, Prevalence of Fasciola hepatica (ELISA and fecal analysis) in ruminants from a semi-desert area in the northwest of Mexico. Parasitology Research 101, 127–130.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Mzembe, S., Chaudhry, M., 1981, The epidemiology of fascioliasis in Malawi part II. Epidemiology in the definitive host. Tropical Animal Health and Production 13, 27–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Ndlovu, T., Chimonyo, M., Muchenje, V., 2009, Monthly changes in body condition scores and internal parasite prevalence in Nguni, Bonsmara and Angus steers raised on sweetveld. Tropical Animal Health and Production 41, 1169–1177.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Ogunrinade, A., Ogunrinade, B., 1980, Economic importance of bovine fascioliasis in Nigeria. Tropical Animal Health and Production 12, 155–160.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Pfukenyi, D.S., Mukaratirwa, S., Willingham, A.L., Monrad, J., 2006, Epidemiological studies of Fasciola gigantica infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 73, 37–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Phiri, A.M., Phiri, I.K., Sikasunge, C.S., Monrad, J., 2005a, Prevalence of fasciolosis in Zambian cattle observed at selected abattoirs with emphasis on age, sex and origin. Veterinary Medicine 52, 414–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Phiri, A.M., Phiri, I.K., Siziya, S., Sikasunge, C.S., Chembensofu, M., Monrad, J., 2005b, Seasonal pattern of bovine fasciolosis in the Kafue and Zambezi catchment areas of Zambia. Veterinary Parasitology 134, 87–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Pritchard, G.C., Forbes, A.B., Williams, D.J.L., Salimi-Bejestani, M.R., Daniel, R.G., 2005, Emergence of fasciolosis in cattle in East Anglia. Veterinary Record 157, 578–582.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Rangel-Ruiz, L.J., Marquez-Izquierdo, R., Bravo-Nogueira, G., 1999, Bovine fasciolosis in Tabasco, Mexico. Veterinary Parasitology 81, 119–127.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Roberts, J.A., Suhardono, 1996, Approaches to the control of fasciolosis in ruminants. International Journal for Parasitology 26, 971–981.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Rondelaud, Vignoles, Abrous, Dreyfuss, 2001, The definitive and intermediate hosts of Fasciola hepatica in the natural watercress beds in central France. Parasitology Research 87, 475–478.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Roy, B., Tandon, V., 1992, Seasonal prevalence of some zoonotic trematode infections in cattle and pigs in the north-east montane zone in India. Veterinary Parasitology 41, 69–76.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Sánchez-Andrade, R., Paz-Silva, A., Suárez, J.L., Panadero, R., Pedreira, J., López, C., Díez-Baños, P., Morrondo, P., 2002, Influence of Age and Breed on Natural Bovine Fasciolosis in an Endemic Area (Galicia, NW Spain). Veterinary Research Communications 26, 361–370.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Schillhorn Van Veen, T., Folaranmi, D., Usman, S., Ishaya, T., 1980, Incidence of liver fluke infections Fasciola gigantica and Dicrocoelium hospes in ruminants in northern Nigeria. Tropical Animal Health and Production 12, 97–104.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Soulsby, E.J.L., 1982, Helminths, arthropods and protozoa of domesticated animals, 7th. Bailliere Tindall, London, 809 p.Google Scholar
  56. Spithill, T.W., Smooker, P.M., Copeman, D.B., 1999, Fasciola gigantica: Epidemiology, control, immunology and molecular biology, In: Dalton, J.P. (Ed.) Fasciolosis. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, pp. 465–525.Google Scholar
  57. Suon, S., Hol, D., Siek, S., McLean, M., Copeman, B., 2006, Seasonal differences in the incidence of infection with &lt;i&gt;Fasciola gigantica&lt;/i&gt; in cambodian cattle. Tropical Animal Health and Production 38, 23–28.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Taira, N., Ando, Y., Williams, J.C., 2003, A colour atlas of clinical helminthology of domestic animals, First. Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  59. Taylor, M.A., Coop, R.L., Wall, R.L., 2007, Veterinary Parasitology, 3rd. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford.Google Scholar
  60. Tembely, S., Galvin, T., Craig, T., Traore, S., 1988, Liver fluke infections of cattle in Mali. An abattoir survey on prevalence and geographic distribution. Tropical Animal Health and Production 20, 117–121.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Thrusfield, M., 2003, Veterinary Epidemiology, Second. Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford.Google Scholar
  62. Tsegaye, B., Abebaw, H., Girma, S., 2012, Study on coprological prevalence of bovine fasciolosis in and around Woreta, Northwestern Ethiopia. Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health 4, 89–92.Google Scholar
  63. Wamae, L.W., Hammond, J.A., Harrison, L.J.S., Onyango-Abuje, J.A., 1998, Comparison of production losses caused by chronic Fasciola gigantica infection in yearling Friesian and Boran cattle. Tropical Animal Health and Production 30, 23–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Waruiru, R.M., Kyvsgaard, N.C., Thamsborg, S.M., Nansen, P., Bøgh, H.O., Munyua, W.K., Gathuma, J.M., 2000, The Prevalence and Intensity of Helminth and Coccidial Infections in Dairy Cattle in Central Kenya. Veterinary Research Communications 24, 39–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Yadav, C.L., Garg, R., Kumar, R.R., Banerjee, P.S., Godara, R., 2007, Seasonal dynamics of Fasciola gigantica infection in cattle and buffaloes in Uttaranchal, India. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 77, 133–135.Google Scholar
  66. Yeneneh, A., Kebede, H., Fentahun, T., Chanie, M., 2012, Prevalence of cattle flukes infection at Andassa Livestock Research Centre in north-west Ethiopia Veterinary Research Forum 3, 85–89.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. Yildrim, A., Ica, A., Duzlu, O., Inci, A., 2007, Prevalence and risk factors associated with Fasciola hepatica in cattle from Kayseri province, Turkey. Veterinary Medicine 158, 613–617.Google Scholar
  68. Yilma, J.M., Malone, J.B., 1998, A geographic information system forecast model for strategic control of fasciolosis in Ethiopia. Veterinary Parasitology 78, 103–127.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Yilma, J.M., Mesfin 2000, Dry season bovine fasciolosis in Northwestern part of Ethiopia. Revue de Médicine Véterinaire 151, 493–500.Google Scholar
  70. Zajac, A.M., Conboy, G.A., 2006, Veterinary Clinical Parasitology, 7th. Blackwell, Iowa.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary and Life SciencesMurdoch UniversityPerthAustralia
  2. 2.Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural ResourcesGaboroneBotswana

Personalised recommendations