Molecular detection and characterization of fowl adenovirus associated with inclusion body hepatitis from broiler chickens in Egypt
A case-control study was performed to assess prescence of inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) caused by fowl adenoviruses (FAdVs) at Kafr EL-Shiekh Governorate, Egypt, during spring, 2017. The case group consisted of 100 liver and spleen samples collected from 10 broiler chickens flocks (10 samples from each flock) suspected to be infected with IBH depending on clinical manefestations and necropsy examination. Controls were randamly selected from chickens without clinical sings or evidence of the disease on postmortem examination. Molecular screening of the disease disease in collected samples based on the DNA polymerase gene of FAdVs was carried out. Furthermore, the DNA polymerase gene sequence was determined and analyzed with published reference sequences on GeneBank. Respectively, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to confirm existence of co-infection with chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) and/or infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV in flocks involved in the study. Using PCR, FAdV genome was detected in seven flocks in the case group and one in the control group. FAdV identified in this study revealed close genetic relationship with FAdVs-D previously identified in UK and Canada, suggesting potential virus transmission from these countries. All tested serum samples from diseased chickens were positive for CIAV infection via ELISA while none of the collected bursa of Fabricius samples tested IBDV positive by RT-PCR. Therefore, results obtained from the current study highlighted the importance of implementation of control measures against FAdV and CIAV in Egyptian poultry flocks. This study opens the door for future work toward specific identification of FAdV serotypes circulating in Egyptian poultry farms and molecular characterization of the virus based on hexon gene or full genome sequencing for better understanding of genetic diversity among FAdVs in Egypt at higher reolution.
KeywordsBroiler chickens CIAV Egypt Fowl adenovirus IBDV Polymerase gene Sequencing analysis
The authors thank Mohamed Mostafa Elhadidy (University of Science and Technology, Giza, Egypt) and Angel Naveenathayalan (Brunel University London, UK) for the English language reviewing. The authors would like to thank Mohamed Ali Maher El-Adl (Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt) for conducting the statistical analysis.
Compliance with ethical standards
Statement of animal rights
Handling of chickens including sampling was performed according to the ethical standards established by Mansoura University, Egypt. Chicken farms owners had given oral consent in accordance with the national ethical regulations.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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