Several strains of porcine bocaviruses have been reported worldwide since their first detection in Sweden in 2009. Subsequently, the virus has been reported to be associated with gastrointestinal and respiratory signs in weaner and grower pigs. Although Malaysia is host to a self-sufficient swine livestock industry, there is no study that describes porcine bocavirus in the country. This report is the first to describe porcine bocavirus (PBoV) in Malaysian swine herds. PBoV was identified in various tissues from sick and runt pigs using the conventional PCR method with primers targeting conserved regions encoding for the nonstructural protein (NS1) gene. Out of 103 samples tested from 17 pigs, 32 samples from 15 pigs were positive for porcine bocavirus. In addition, a higher detection rate was identified from mesenteric lymph nodes (52.9%), followed by tonsil (37.0%), and lungs (33.3%). Pairwise comparison and phylogenetic analyses based on a 658-bp fragment of NS1 gene revealed that the Malaysian PBoV strains are highly similar to PBoV3 isolated in Minnesota, USA. The presence of porcine bocavirus in Malaysia and their phylogenetic bond was marked for the first time by this study. Further studies will establish the molecular epidemiology of PBoV in Malaysia and clarify pathogenicity of the local isolates.
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We thank the Universiti Putra Malaysia and the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine for providing the facilities to conduct this research.
The authors thank the Government of Malaysia and its Ministry of Higher Education who funded this research through the Fundamental Research Grants Scheme (FRGS) (Grant no. FRGS 2014-1-5524541).
Statement of animal rights
This research project was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC), with reference number UPM/IACUC/AUP–R063/2014.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.
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Mohan Jacob, D., Lee, C.Y., Arshad, S.S. et al. First molecular detection of porcine bocavirus in Malaysia. Trop Anim Health Prod 50, 733–739 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-017-1489-z
- Porcine bocavirus
- Phylogenetic analysis