Advertisement

Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 50, Issue 3, pp 643–650 | Cite as

Investigations into nematode parasites of goats in pastoral and crop livestock systems of Ethiopia

  • A. HaileEmail author
  • H. Hassen
  • H. Gatew
  • T. Getachew
  • R. N. B. Lobo
  • B. Rischkowsky
Regular Articles

Abstract

We generated epidemiological information on the prevalence of nematode parasites and possible resistance/resilience of goats in three areas, Bati, Shinille, and Borana, of Ethiopia. A total of 350 breeding does were randomly selected and monitored for one year. Fecal egg counts (FEC), packed cell volume (PCV), body weight (BW), body condition score (BC), and fecal larvae identification were done. In Borana, the long rainy season had higher FEC, lower PCV, lower BC, and smaller BW compared to dry and short rainy seasons (p < 0.01). For Bati and Shinille, the differences between the seasons were significant (p < 0.01) but not clear-cut. Breed differences were also evident (p < 0.01) on FEC, PCV, and BW. The mean FEC for Borana goat was 158.5 ± 1.12, whereas for Bati it was 38.9 ± 1.12. Age differences did not have effect on FECs, PCV, and BC. No differences in parasite load, as reflected by FEC, was verified between male and female goats. In the wet season, large numbers of larvae were recovered from the study sites except for Bati. In the three sites, Haemonchus contortus followed by Trichostrongylus colubriformis were the dominant species. In the dry season, however, very little number of larvae was recovered, only of H. contortus in Bati and of H. contortus and T. colubriformis in Borana. Generally, the level of nematode infection was low. Therefore, nematode parasites are not a major problem and strategic control program using broad spectrum anthelmintic is not advisable. Rather, monitoring parasite load and selective de-worming should be sufficient to reduce productivity loses and pasture contamination.

Keywords

Epidemiology Nematode Goat Pastoral and crop livestock systems 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We acknowledge technical support provided by staff of our partner institutes in Yabello, Dire Dawa and Bati. We thank community members who participated in providing their flocks to the study. Financial support for the study was provided by Africa-Brazil market Place and CRP Livestock and Fish.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Agyei, A.D., 1997. Seasonal changes in the level of infective strongylate nematode larvae on pasture in the coastal savannah regions of Ghana. Veterinary Parasitology, 70: 175–182.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Amarante, A.F.T., Bricarello, P.A., Rocha, R.A. and Gennari, S.M., 2004. Resistance of Santa Ines, Suffolk and Ile de France sheep to naturally acquired gastrointestinal nematode infections. Veterinary Parasitology, 120: 91–106.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ashad, F., Anisuzzaman, A., Begum, N., Dey A. R. and Mondal, M. M. H., 2011. Factors affecting the development and hatching of eggs and the survival of infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus in laboratory condition. Progressive Agriculture, 22(1 & 2): 75–83.Google Scholar
  4. Aumont, G., Gruner, L. and Hostache, G., 2003. Comparison of the resistance to sympatric and allopatric isolates of Haemonchus contortus of Black belly sheep in Guadeloupe (FWI) and of INRA 401 sheep in France. Veterinary Parasitology, 116: 139–150CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Baker, R. L., Audho, J. O., Aduda, E. O. and Thorpe, W., 2001. Genetic resistance to gastro-intestinal nematode parasites in Galla and Small East African goats in the sub-humid tropics. Animal Science, 73:61–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barger, I. A., 1993. Influence of sex and reproductive status on susceptibility of ruminants to nematode parasitism. International Journal of Parasitology, 23: 463–470.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Biffa, D., Jobre, Y. and Chakka, H., 2006. Ovine helminthosis, a major health constraint to productivity of sheep in Ethiopia. Animal Health Research Review, 7(1/2): 107–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chauhan, K.K., Rout, P.K., Singh, P.K., Mandal, A., Singh, S.K. and Roy, R., 2003. Genetic resistance of Barbari and Jamunapari kids to natural infection with gastrointestinal nematodes. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 35(5): 397–408.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Coop, R.L., Huntley, J.F. and Smith, W.D., 1995. Effect of dietary protein supplementation on the development of immunity to Ostertagia circumcincta in growing lambs. Research in Veterinary Science, 59: 24–29.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Coyne, M.J., Smith, G. and Johnstone, C., 1991. Fecundity of gastrointestinal trichostrongylid nematodes of sheep in the field. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 52: 1182–1188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Dineen, J.K., Greeg, P. and Lascelles, A.K.K., 1978. The response of lambs to vaccination at weaning with irradiated Trichostrongylus colubriformis larvae segregating into ‘responders’ and ‘nonresponders’ International Journal of Parasitology, 8: 59–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Good, B., Hanrahan, J.P., Crowley, B.A. and Mulcahy, G., 2006. Texel sheep are more resistant to natural nematode challenge than Suffolk sheep based on faecal egg count and nematode burden. Veterinary Parasitology, 136: 317–327.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Haile, A., Tibbo, M., Baker, R.L. and Rege, J.E.O., 2007. Effects of non-genetic factors on responses to gastro-intestinal nematode infections in Ethiopian sheep. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 39 (6): 411–417.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Haile, A., Gashaw, A., Tolamariam, T., and Tibbo, M., 2010. Epidemiology of nematode parasites of sheep around Jimma, South Western Ethiopia. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 42(5): 825–831.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Hansen, J.W. and Perry, B.D., 1994. The epidemiology, diagnosis and control of helminth parasites of ruminants. A hand book, 2nd edition, ILRAD, Nairobi, Kenya. pp. 1–79.Google Scholar
  16. Ismail, A. M., Yousif, I. A. and Fadlelmoula, A. A., 2011. Phenotypic Variations in Birth and Body Weights of the Sudanese Desert Goats. Livestock Res. Rural Dev. 23, 34. Retrieved September 5, 2016, from http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd23/2/isma23034.htm
  17. Jacquiet, P., Cabaret, J., Cheikh, D. and Thiam, A., 1995. Experimental study of survival strategy of Haemonchus contortus in sheep during the dry season in desert areas of the Mauritania. Journal of Parasitology, 81: 1013–1015.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Knox, M.R., Torres-Acosta, J.F.J., Aguilar-Caballero, A.J., 2006. Exploiting the effect of dietary supplementation of small ruminants on resilience end resistance against gastrointestinal nematodes. Veterinary Parasitology, 139: 385–393.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Lloyd, S. and Soulsby, E.J.L., 1987. Immunology of gastrointestinal nematodes of ruminants. In: Soulsby, E.J.L (ed). Immune responses in parasitic infections. Immunology, Immunopathology and immunoprophylaxis, Vol 1, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Florida, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  20. MAFF, 1986. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, U. K. Manual of Veterinary Parasitological Laboratory Techniques. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London. pp. 1–152.Google Scholar
  21. Mamo, B., Tedla, S. and Gebre-ab, F., 1982. Survey of gastrointestinal helminths in sheep slaughtered at the Addis Ababa abattoir, Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 4: 87–94.Google Scholar
  22. Mandonnet, N., Ducrocq, V., Arquet, R. and Aumont, G., 2003 Mortality of Creole kids during infection with gastrointestinal strongyles: a survival analysis. Journal of Animal Sciences, 81: 2401–2408.Google Scholar
  23. Mehmet, K. and Şeniz, Ö.A., 2013. Importance of body condition score in dairy goats. Macedonian Journal of Animal Sciences, 3: 167–173.Google Scholar
  24. Murray, M., Trail, J.C.M., Turner, D.A., and Wissocq, Y., 1983. Livestock productivity and trypanotolerance Network Training manual, International Livestock Centre for Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. pp. 4–10.Google Scholar
  25. Ndamukong, K.J.N. and Ngone, M.M., 1996. Development and survival of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus spp. on pasture in Cameroon. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 28: 193–197.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Njau, B.C., Scholtens, R.G. and Kasali, O., 1990. Parasites of sheep at the International Livestock Center for Africa Debre Berhan Station, Ethiopia. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 90: 267–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Regassa, F., Sori, T., Dhuguma, R. and Kiros, Y., 2006. Epidemiology of gastrointestinal parasites of ruminants in Western Oromia, Ethiopia. International Journal of Applied Research in Veterinary Medicine, 4(1): 51–57.Google Scholar
  28. Rice, J., 1995. Mathematical Statistics and Data Analysis, 2nd edition. Duxbury Press, USA.Google Scholar
  29. Riffkin, G.G. and Dobson, C., 1979. Predicting resistance of sheep to Haemonchus contortus infections. Veterinary Parasitology, 5(4): 365–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. SAS, 2002. Statistical Analysis Systems for mixed models. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA.Google Scholar
  31. Shaw, K.L., Nolan, J.V., Lynch, J.J., Coverdale, O.R. and Gill, H.S., 1995. Effect of weaning, supplementation and gender on acquired immunity to Haemonchus contortus in lambs. International Journal of Parasitology, 25: 381–387.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Sissay, M.M., Uggla, A. and Waller, P.J., 2007. Epidemiology and seasonal dynamics of gastrointestinal nematode infections of sheep in a semi-arid region of eastern Ethiopia. Veterinary Parasitology, 143: 311–321.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Tembely, S., Lahlou-kassi, A., Rege, J.E.O., Sovani, S., Diedhiou, M.L. and Baker, R.L., 1997. The epidemiology of nematode infections in sheep in a cool tropical environment Veterinary Parasitology, 70 (1–3): 129–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Terefe, G., Lacroux, C., Andreoletti, O., Grisez, C., Prévot, F., Bergeaud, J.P., Penicaud, J., Rouillon, V., Gruner, L., Brunel, J.C., François, D., Bouix, J., Dorchies, P. and Jacquiet P., 2007. Immune response to Haemonchus contortus infection in susceptible (INRA-401) and resistant (Barbados Black Belly) breeds of lambs. Parasite Immunology, 29: 415–427.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Tibbo, M., Aragaw, K. and Deressa, A., 2004. Effects of anthelmintics and supplementation on productivity of Menz and Menz-Awassi crossbred sheep with sub-clinical helminthosis. Ethiopian Veterinary Journal, 8(2): 1–22.Google Scholar
  36. Urquhart, G.M., Armour, J., Duncan, J.L., Dunn, A.M. and Jennings, F.W., 1996. Veterinary Parasitology, 2nd ed., Blackwell Science Ltd.Google Scholar
  37. Wanyangu, S.W., Karimi S., Mugambi, J.M. and Bain, R.K., 1997. Availability of Haemonchus contortus L3 larvae on pasture at Kiboko: semi-arid warm agro-climatic zone in Kenya. Acta Tropica, 68: 193–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Whitlock, J.H., 1948. Some modifications of the McMaster helminth egg-counting technique and apparatus. Journal of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research Australia, 21: 177–180.Google Scholar
  39. Wilson, R. T. and Durkin, J. W., 1984. Age at permanent incisor eruption in indigenous goats and sheep in semi-arid Africa. Livestock Production Science, 11(4):451–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zanzani, S.A., Gazzonis, A.L., Cerbo, A., Varady, M. and Manfredi, M.T., 2014. Gastrointestinal nematodes of dairy goats, anthelmintic resistance and practices of parasite control in Northern Italy. BMC Veterinary Research, 10:114–123.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Haile
    • 1
    Email author
  • H. Hassen
    • 1
  • H. Gatew
    • 2
  • T. Getachew
    • 3
  • R. N. B. Lobo
    • 4
  • B. Rischkowsky
    • 1
  1. 1.International Centre for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA)Addis AbabaEthiopia
  2. 2.Debre Berhan UniversityDebre BerhanEthiopia
  3. 3.Addis Ababa UniversityDebre-ZeitEthiopia
  4. 4.EMBRAPA Goats and SheepSobralBrazil

Personalised recommendations