Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 50, Issue 2, pp 393–398 | Cite as

Effects of substituting sow and weaner meal with brewers’ spent grains on the performance of growing pigs in Rwanda

  • Mary Anne Mukasafari
  • Mary K. Ambula
  • Callixte Karege
  • Anthony M. King’ori
Regular Articles


Nutrient composition of brewers’ spent grains (BSG) from two industries and sow and weaner meal (SWM) were different (p < 0.05). In completely randomised design (CRD), thirty (30) Landrace x Pietrain crosses 35 to 40 ± 5 kg were randomly allocated to 10 pens each with 3 pigs based on the initial weight. Five diets were assigned to pig, where BSG replaced SWM at 0% (T1), 25% (T2), 50% (T3), 75% (T4) and 100% (T5) on DM basis. Daily feed intake and weekly live weight, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and the net profit were recorded for 42 days. Feed intake increased from T1-T3 and then decreased (p < 0.05). The average daily gains (ADG) were different (p < 0.05), but T1 to T3 were similar (p > 0.05). FCR was similar (p > 0.05) from T1 to T3 but different for T4 and T5 (p < 0.05). Feed cost decreased with the increase in BSG levels. The net return was highest in T3 (50% BSG) than in T1 and T2 but lower in T5. It was concluded that BSG can replace 50% SWM in grower pigs’ diets without adverse effect on daily gain with good economic returns.


Barley Economics Feed intake Fibre Sow and weaner meal Weight gain 



Appreciation is extended to Mr. P. Bisamaza for allowing us to use his pigs and other farm facilities.

Funding information

This study was made possible through the generous financial support provided by Netherlands Initiative for Capacity development in Higher Education-Rwanda (NICHE RWA-173).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Amaefule, K.U., Onwudike, O.C., Ibe, S.N. and Abasiekong, S.F., 2006. Performance, cost benefit, carcass quality and organ characteristics of pigs fed high graded levels of brewers’ dried grain diets in the humid tropics, Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 5 (3), 242–247. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. AOAC, 1990. official methods of analysis, Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Fifteenth edition, Washington D.C., p. 587.Google Scholar
  3. Dong, N.T.K. and Ogle, R.B., 2003. Effect of brewery waste replacement of concentrate on the performance of local and crossbred Muscovy ducks. Asian-Australian Journal of Animal Sciences, 16, 1510–1517. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dung, N.X., Manh, L.H. and Uden, P., 2002. Tropical fibre sources for pigs—digestibility, digesta retention and estimation of fibre digestibility in vitro, Animal Feed Science and Technology. 102, 109–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Imonikebe, U.G. and Kperegbeyi, J.I., 2014. Effect of substitution of maize with brewer’s dried grain in pig starter diet on the performance of weaner pig, Global Journal of Agricultural Research 2, 4, 42–48.Google Scholar
  6. Jorgensen, H., Zhao, X.Q. and Eggum, B.O., 1996. The influence of dietary fibre and environmental temperature on the development of the gastrointestinal tract, digestibility, degree of fermentation in the hindgut and metabolism in pigs, British Journal of Nutrition, 75, 365–374.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Knudsen, K. B. E. and Hansen, I., 1991. Gastrointestinal implications in pigs of wheat and oat fractions 1. Digestibility and bulking properties of polysaccharides and other major constituents. British Journal of Nutrition; 65: 217–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kornegay, E.T., 1973. Digestible and metabolizable energy and protein utilization values of brewers’ dried by-products for swine, Journal of Animal Science 37, 479–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Mateos, G.G., Martin, F., Latorre, M.A., Vicente, B. and Lazaro, R., 2006. Inclusion of oat hulls in diets for young pigs based on cooked maize or cooked rice, Journal of Animal Science, 82, 57–63.Google Scholar
  10. Nissanka, N.P.C., Bandara, R.M.A.S. and Disnaka, K.G.J.S., 2010. A comparative study on feeding of total mixed ration vs conventional feeding on weight gain in weaned Friesian heifers under tropical environment, Journal of Agricultural Science, 5, 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Noblet, J., 2007. Recent developments in net energy research for swine. Advances in Pork Production. In Proceedings of the 2007 Banff Pork Seminar, January 16–19, University of Alberta, Edmonton, pp. 149–156.Google Scholar
  12. Pelevina, G., 2007. Brewer’s grains in feed rations for pigs, Redaktsiya Zhurnala Svinovodstvo, 4, 18–20.Google Scholar
  13. Rijal, T.B., Nepali, D.B., Sah, R.A. and Sharma, M.P., 2009. Economic use of brewer’s dried grain in the diet of Swine Chitwan Rampur. Nepal Journal of Science and Technology 10, 29–35. Google Scholar
  14. Robertson, J.A.I., Anson, K.J.A., Treimo, J., Faulds, C.B., Brocklehurst, T.F., Eijsink, V.G.H. and Waldron, K.W., 2010. Profiling brewers’ spent grain for composition and microbial ecology at the site of production, LWT Food Science and Technology 43, 890–896.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. SAS, 2002. Users guide statistics, version 9, SAS institute Inc. Cary.Google Scholar
  16. Senthilkumar, S., Viswanathan, T.V., Mercy, A.D., Gangadevi, P., Ally, K. and Shyama, K., 2010. Chemical composition of brewery waste Tamilnadu, Journal of Veterinary & Animal Sciences 6 (1), 49–51. Google Scholar
  17. da Silva, C.S., van den Borne, J.J., Gerrits, W.G., Kemp, B. and Bolhuis, J.E., 2012. Effects of dietary fibres with different physicochemical properties on feeding motivation in adult female pigs, Physiological Behaviour, 107, 218–230. doi: Scholar
  18. Su, A.K. and Station, H.C., 1996. Utilization of agricultural by-products in Taiwan. pp. 1–6, Accessed April 20, 2005.
  19. Tang, Z., Cenkowski, S. and Izydorczyk, M., 2005. Thin-layer drying of spent grains in superheated steam, Journal of Food Engineering, 67, 457–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Westendorf, M.L. and Wohlt, J.E., 2002. Brewing by-products: their use as animal feeds. Veterinary Clinics of North America-food Animal Practice. 18 (2), 233–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Wiseman, J., 1987. Feeding of non-ruminant livestock. Butterworth, London. 208 pp.Google Scholar
  22. Yaakugh, I.D.I. and Tegbe, T.S.B., 1990. Performance and carcass characteristics of grower and finisher pigs fed diets containing brewers’ dry grain, Nigerian Agricultural Journal, 24, 31–40.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mary Anne Mukasafari
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mary K. Ambula
    • 1
  • Callixte Karege
    • 2
  • Anthony M. King’ori
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Animal SciencesEgerton UniversityEgertonKenya
  2. 2.Department of Animal ProductionCAVM, University of RwandaMusanzeRwanda

Personalised recommendations