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Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 50, Issue 1, pp 97–104 | Cite as

Evaluation of immunostimulatory and immunotherapeutic effects of tropical mushroom (Lentinus edodes) against eimeriasis in chicken

  • Muhammad Irfan UllahEmail author
  • Masood Akhtar
  • Mian Muhammad Awais
  • Muhammad Irfan Anwar
  • Kashfa Khaliq
Regular Articles

Abstract

Mushrooms (Lentinus edodes) were processed for hot water (HWE), methanolic (ME), and polysaccharide (PSE) extracts. Polysaccharides were isolated through ion exchange (DEAE cellulose) and size exclusion (Sephadex G-100) chromatography. Monosaccharides including maltose (0.282%), glucose (0.113%), and mannose (0.451%) were identified, qualitatively and quantitatively, from the isolated polysaccharides through high-performance liquid chromatography. The whole study was divided into two experiments. Experiment 1 was meant for the evaluation of HWE and ME; whereas, experiment 2 was meant for the evaluation of PSE for immunostimulatory and immunotherapeutic activities. The cellular and humoral immune responses were demonstrated through lymphoproliferative response to phytohemagglutinin-P (PHA-P) and anti-body response to sheep red blood cells (SRBCs), respectively. The immunotherapeutic effects of these extracts were demonstrated against eimeriasis in terms of lesion scoring, oocysts per gram of droppings, and percent protection. Cell-mediated immune responses observed at 24, 48, and 72 h post-PHA-P injection were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in chickens administered with any of the three extracts (PSE, ME, and HWE), when compared with the controls. Humoral immune response in terms of anti-SRBCs anti-body titers was also observed higher in chickens administered with mushroom extracts. In the challenge experiment, significantly higher (P < 0.05) OPG and lesion scores were observed in controls as compared to the groups administered with mushroom extracts (HWE, ME, and PSE). Significantly higher (P < 0.05) percent protection against eimeriasis was observed in all groups administered with different extracts of L. edodes as compared to controls. In conclusion, L. edodes extracts showed immunostimulatory potential which persisted against eimeriasis in chicken.

Keywords

Mushroom Lentinus edodes Eimeriasis Chicken Immunostimulation Immunotherapeutic 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Funds for this project were sponsored by Higher Education Commission (HEC), Islamabad, Pakistan, under the scheme of PhD indigenous scholarship Batch V already enrolled PhDs Pin No. 085-12327-Av5-22.

Compliance with ethical standards

All procedures in animal experimentation were conducted in accordance with the guidelines of institutional animal care and use committee after approval from advance studies research board University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Irfan Ullah
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Masood Akhtar
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mian Muhammad Awais
    • 1
  • Muhammad Irfan Anwar
    • 1
  • Kashfa Khaliq
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary SciencesBahauddin Zakariya UniversityMultanPakistan
  2. 2.Immunoparasitology Laboratory, Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary SciencesUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan
  3. 3.Department of MicrobiologyGovernment College UniversityFaisalabadPakistan

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