Dynamics of vanishing of maternally derived antibodies of Ungulate protoparvovirus 1 suggests an optimal age for gilts vaccination
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The prevention of Ungulate protoparvovirus 1 (UPV1) infection and consequently the reproductive losses is based on vaccination of all pigs intended for breeding. As maternally derived antibodies (MDA) can interfere with the development of immunity following vaccination, it is important to know the duration of anti-UPV1 MDA to determine the optimal age for the best vaccination efficacy. To elucidate the association between dam and piglet antibody levels against UPV1 and to estimate the decrease rate of MDA, sera and colostrum of 127 gilts (before the first vaccination against UPV1; 15 days after the second vaccine dose; at farrowing; and during the second pregnancy) and sera of 276 piglets (prior to initial colostrum intake; at 7, 21, 57, 87, and 128 days-old) were tested by ELISA. Most gilts (85.8%) had anti-UPV1 antibodies before vaccination and after vaccination all were positive. At 7 days old, the majority of the piglets had anti-UPV1 antibodies, but around 57 days old, only 35.3% were positive and at 87 days old, all were negative. The estimated average half-life of MDA was 29.8 (28.8–30.9) days. A strong correlation was determined between piglet serum at 7 days old with gilt serum at farrowing time (r = 0.77, n = 248, P < 0.001) and with piglet serum at 7 days old with colostrum (r = 0.73, n = 248, P < 0.001). The MDA decreased earlier and the antibody half-life was a little longer than previously reported. Based on these findings, UPV1 vaccination can be performed earlier than usual.
KeywordsPorcine parvovirus UPV1 Maternal immunity Vaccine Swine
This work was supported by grants from the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq/Brazil). We are also grateful to Dr. Jeffrey J. Zimmerman, Dr. Christa A. Irwin, and Dr. Arlei Coldebella for the statistical analysis and Master Agropecuária for the partnership in this project.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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