Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Seroprevalence of economically important viral pathogens in swine populations of Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies

  • 215 Accesses

  • 1 Citations

Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence and identify the strains of swine influenza virus (SwIV), as well as the seroprevalence of porcine parvovirus (PPV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2), and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) in pigs in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T). Blood samples (309) were randomly collected from pigs at farms throughout T&T. Serum samples were tested for the presence of antibodies to the aforementioned viruses using commercial ELISA kits, and the circulating strains of SwIV were identified by the hemagglutination inhibition test (HIT). Antibodies against SwIV were detected in 114 out of the 309 samples (37%). Out of a total of 26 farms, 14 tested positive for SwIV antibodies. HI testing revealed high titers against the A/sw/Minnesota/593/99 H3N2 strain and the pH1N1 2009 pandemic strain. Antibodies against PPV were detected in 87 out of the 309 samples (28%), with 11 out of 26 farms testing positive for PPV antibodies. Antibodies against PCV-2 were detected in 205 out of the 309 samples tested (66%), with 25 out of the 26 farms testing positive for PCV-2 antibodies. No antibodies were detected in any of the tested pigs to PRRSV, TGEV, PRCV, or CSFV.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  1. Adeola, O., Olugasa, B. and Emikpe, B., 2015. Detection of pandemic strain of influenza virus (A/H1N1/pdm09) in pigs, West Africa: implications and considerations for prevention of future influenza pandemics at the source. Infection Ecology and Epidemiology, 5.

  2. Anderson, T., Campbell, B., Nelson, M., Lewis, N., Janas-Martindale, A., Killian, M. and Vincent, A., 2015. Characterization of co-circulating swine influenza A viruses in North America and the identification of a novel H1 genetic clade with antigenic significance. Virus Research, 201, 24–31. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2015.02.009.

  3. Australian Pork Industry Biosecurity Programme (APIBP) Version 1, p. 26.. Farm biosecurity. 2003. http://farmbiosecurity.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/Australian-Pork-Industry-Biosecurity-Program.pdf. Accessed 19 Feb 2016.

  4. Cannon, R.M., Roe, R.T., 1982. Livestock disease surveys—a field manual for veterinarians. Canberra.

  5. Cutler, R.S., Gardner, I. 1988. A blueprint for pig health research. Australian Pig Research Council, Canberra. p27.

  6. Er, C., Lium, B., Tavornpanich, S., Hofmo, P., Forberg, H., Hauge, A., Grøntvedt, C., Framstad, T., Brun, E. 2014. Adverse effects of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus on growth performance of Norwegian pigs—a longitudinal study at a boar testing station. BMC Vet Res. 10:284. doi: 10.1186/s12917-014-0284-6

  7. Ewald, C., Heer, A., Havenith, U. 1994. Factors associated with the occurrence of influenza A virus infections in fattening swine. Berl. Munch. Tierarztl. Wochenschr. 107(1994): 256–262.

  8. Gillespie, J., Opriessnig, T., Meng, X. J., Pelzer, K. and Buechner-Maxwell, V. 2009. Porcine circovirus type 2 and porcine circovirus-associated disease. J. Vet. Intern. Med. 75(3): 257–268.

  9. Gonzalez, R. and Ana, S., 2015. Ecology and molecular epidemiology of avian and swine influenza A viruses in Guatemala. [dissertation]. Ann Arbor, USA. University of Maryland, College Park.

  10. Humphry, R., Cameron, A. and Gunn, G., 2004. A practical approach to calculate sample size for herd prevalence surveys. Preventative Veterinary Medicine, 65, 173–188. doi:10.1016/j.prevetmed.2004.07.003

  11. Kwiecien, E.J., Venezuela’s pig industry after 14 years of socialism. Pig Progress website. 2013. http://www.pigprogress.net/Finishers/Articles/2013/5/Venezuelas-pig-industry-after-14-years-of-socialism-1269653W/. Accessed 20 Feb 2016.

  12. Liu, Q., Wang, Li., Wilson, P., O’ Connor, B., Keenliside, J., Chirino-Trejo, M., Melendez, R. and Babiuk, L., 2002. Seroprevalence of porcine circovirus type 2 in swine populations in Canada and Costa Rica. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, 66(4), 225–231.

  13. Lopez-Robles, G., Montalvo-Corral, M., Burgara-Estrella, A. and Hernandez, J., 2014. Serological and molecular prevalence of swine influenza virus on farms in northwestern Mexico. Veterinary Microbiology, 172(1–2), 323–328. doi:10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.05.017

  14. Ma, W., Kahn, R.E. and Richt, J.A., 2009. The pig as a mixing vessel for influenza viruses: human and veterinary implications. Journal of Molecular and Genetic Medicine, 3, 158–166.

  15. Maes, D., Deluyker, H., Verdonck, M., Castryck, F., Miry, C., Vrijens, B., de Kruif, A. 2000. Herd factors associated with the seroprevalence of four major respiratory pathogens in slaughter pigs from farrow-to-finish pig herds. Vet Res. 31(3): 313–27.

  16. Monroy, M., Ramirez-Nieto, G., Vera, V., Correa, J. and Mogollon-Galvis, J., 2014. Detection and molecular characterization of porcine circovirus type 2 from piglets with porcine circovirus associated diseases in Columbia. Virology Journal, 11:143. doi:10.1186/1743-422X-11-143.

  17. Morilla, A., Yoon, K. and Zimmerman, J., 2008. Trends in emerging viral infections of swine. John Wiley and Sons.

  18. Nawagitgul, P., Harms, P., Morozov, I., Thacker, Bj., Sorden, S., Lekcharoensuk, C. and Paul, P., 2002. Modified indirect porcine circovirus (PCV) type 2-based and recombinant capsid protein (ORF-2)-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of antibodies to PCV. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology, 9(1), 33–40.

  19. Olsen, C., Carey, S., Hinshaw, L. and Karasin, A., 2000. Virologic and serologic surveillance for human, swine and avian influenza virus infections among pigs in the north-central United States, Archives of Virology, 145, 1399–1419.

  20. Organization for Animal Health. Swine influenza technical disease card. 2009. http://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Animal_Health_in_the_World/docs/pdf/Disease_cards/SWINE_INFLUENZA.pdf. Accessed 15 Sept 2015.

  21. Organization for Animal Health. Influenza A virus of swine. 2016. http://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Health_standards/tahm/2.08.07_INF_A_SWINE.pdf. Accessed 20 Sept 2016.

  22. Poljak, Z., C. E. Dewey, S. W. Martin, J. Christensen, S. Carman, and R. M. Friendship, 2008: Prevalence of and risk factors for influenza in southern Ontario swine herds in 2001 and 2003. Can. J. Vet. Res. 72, 7–17.

  23. Porcine Parvovirus (PPV).The pig site. 2014. http://www.thepigsite.com/pighealth/article/141/porcine-parvovirus-ppv/. Accessed 4 Mar 2016.

  24. Rajao, D., Alves, F., Del Puerto, H., Braz, G., Oliveira, F., Ciacci-Zanella, J., Schaefer, R., dos Reis, J., Guedes, R., Lobato, Z. and Leite, R., 2013. Serological evidence of swine influenza in Brazil. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses, 7(2), 109–112. doi:10.1111/j.1750-2659.2012.00366.x

  25. Simon-Grife, M., G. E. Martin-Valls, M. J. Vilar, I. Garcia-Bocanegra, M. Mora, M. Martin, E. Mateu, and J. Casal,2011: Seroprevalence and risk factors of swine influenza in Spain. Vet. Microbiol. 149: 56–63.

  26. Brad Thacker. Merck Animal Health: Technical Services Bulletin. Understanding PCV-2 pathogenesis. 2013. http://www.merck-animal-health-usa.com/binaries/Understanding_PCV-2_Pathogenesis_tcm96-154728.pdf. Accessed 1 Dec 2015.

  27. Van Alstine, W. G. 2012. Respiratory system in disease of swine. 10th Edition. Wiley-Blackwell.

  28. Walker, I., Konoby, C., Jewhurst, V., Mcnair, I., Mcneilly, F., Meehan, B., Cottrell, T., Ellis, J., and Allan, G., 2000. Development and application of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of serum antibodies to porcine circovirus type 2. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 12(5), 400–405.

  29. Wang, C., Huang, T., Huang, C., Tu, C., Jong, M., Lin, S. and Lai, S., 2004. Characterization of porcine circovirus type 2 in Taiwan. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 66(5), 469–475.

  30. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS Interface) – Version 2; Disease information, disease distribution maps. World Organization for Animal Health website. 2015. http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Diseaseinformation/Diseasedistributionmap. Accessed 19 Feb 2016.

Download references

Acknowledgements

We thank the pig farmers of Trinidad and Tobago for providing access to their pigs for sampling. We are grateful to the academic and technical staff of the UWI School of Veterinary Medicine especially Mr. Roger Malcolm and Dr. Marc Driscoll who were particularly instrumental in the sampling collection stages. We owe our gratitude to the Director of Veterinary Public Health, Dr. Saed Rahaman, and the Livestock and Livestock Products Board of Trinidad and Tobago. We also thank the UWI Trinidad and Tobago Research and Development Impact Fund (RDI Fund) for funding the study. We thank Natalie McGinn at the Animal and Plant Health Agency—Weybridge for technical support.

Author information

Correspondence to Jamie R. V. Sookhoo.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the University of the West Indies (UWI) Research and Development Impact Fund and the UWI Ethics Committee.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Sookhoo, J.R.V., Brown-Jordan, A., Blake, L. et al. Seroprevalence of economically important viral pathogens in swine populations of Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies. Trop Anim Health Prod 49, 1117–1124 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-017-1299-3

Download citation

Keywords

  • Seroprevalence
  • Trinidad and Tobago
  • Porcine parvovirus
  • Porcine circovirus type 2
  • Swine influenza A virus