Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 48, Issue 8, pp 1673–1678 | Cite as

Supplementation of banana flower powder pellet and plant oil sources on in vitro ruminal fermentation, digestibility, and methane production

  • Sungchhang Kang
  • Metha WanapatEmail author
  • Bounnaxay Viennasay
Regular Articles


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of banana flower power pellet (BAFLOP-pellet) and plant oil source on in vitro gas production, fermentation efficiency, and methane (CH4) production. Rumen fluid was collected from two rumen-fistulated dairy steers fed on rice straw-based diet with concentrate supplement to maintain normal rumen ecology. All supplemented feed were added to respective treatments in the 30:70 roughage to concentrate-based substrate. The treatments were arranged according to a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design. First factor was different levels of BAFLOP-pellet supplementation (0, 30, and 60 g/kg of dietary substrate) and second factor was plant oil source supplementation [non-supplemented, 20 g/kg krabok seed oil (KSO), and 20 g/kg coconut oil (CO) of dietary substrate, respectively]. Under this investigation, BAFLOP-pellet supplementation increased gas production kinetics and in vitro digestibility (P < 0.05). Ruminal pH was dropped post incubation time in the non-supplemented group but was enhanced in BAFLOP-pellet-supplemented treatments. On the other hand, supplementation of KSO and CO depressed gas production and digestibility, but did not influence ruminal pH. In addition, protozoal population and CH4 production were decreased by BAFLOP-pellet and plant oil addition (P < 0.05). Based on this study, it could be concluded that supplementation of BAFLOP-pellet and plant oil source could enhance the in vitro fermentation efficiency while reduced protozoal population and CH4 production. It is suggested that BAFLOP-pellet (60 g/kg of dietary substrate) and KSO/CO (20 g/kg of dietary substrate) could be used to manipulate rumen fermentation characteristics fed on high-concentrate diet.


Banana flower Plant oil Rumen ecology Methane Ruminant 



The most sincere thanks are extended to the Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Centre (TROFREC), Khon Kaen University (KKU), and Thailand Research Fund (TRF) through the International Research Network (IRN) program for their kind support on research fund and facility.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Ethical guideline

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sungchhang Kang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Metha Wanapat
    • 2
    Email author
  • Bounnaxay Viennasay
    • 2
  1. 1.Agricultural Unit, Department of EducationNational Institute of EducationPhnom PenhCambodia
  2. 2.Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center (TROFREC), Department of Animal Science, Faculty of AgricultureKhon Kaen UniversityKhon KaenThailand

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