Supplementation of banana flower powder pellet and plant oil sources on in vitro ruminal fermentation, digestibility, and methane production
- 328 Downloads
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of banana flower power pellet (BAFLOP-pellet) and plant oil source on in vitro gas production, fermentation efficiency, and methane (CH4) production. Rumen fluid was collected from two rumen-fistulated dairy steers fed on rice straw-based diet with concentrate supplement to maintain normal rumen ecology. All supplemented feed were added to respective treatments in the 30:70 roughage to concentrate-based substrate. The treatments were arranged according to a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design. First factor was different levels of BAFLOP-pellet supplementation (0, 30, and 60 g/kg of dietary substrate) and second factor was plant oil source supplementation [non-supplemented, 20 g/kg krabok seed oil (KSO), and 20 g/kg coconut oil (CO) of dietary substrate, respectively]. Under this investigation, BAFLOP-pellet supplementation increased gas production kinetics and in vitro digestibility (P < 0.05). Ruminal pH was dropped post incubation time in the non-supplemented group but was enhanced in BAFLOP-pellet-supplemented treatments. On the other hand, supplementation of KSO and CO depressed gas production and digestibility, but did not influence ruminal pH. In addition, protozoal population and CH4 production were decreased by BAFLOP-pellet and plant oil addition (P < 0.05). Based on this study, it could be concluded that supplementation of BAFLOP-pellet and plant oil source could enhance the in vitro fermentation efficiency while reduced protozoal population and CH4 production. It is suggested that BAFLOP-pellet (60 g/kg of dietary substrate) and KSO/CO (20 g/kg of dietary substrate) could be used to manipulate rumen fermentation characteristics fed on high-concentrate diet.
KeywordsBanana flower Plant oil Rumen ecology Methane Ruminant
The most sincere thanks are extended to the Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Centre (TROFREC), Khon Kaen University (KKU), and Thailand Research Fund (TRF) through the International Research Network (IRN) program for their kind support on research fund and facility.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- AOAC., 2012. Official Methods of Analysis, 19th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Gaithersburg, MD.Google Scholar
- Galyen, M., 1989. Laboratory procedures in animal nutrition research. New Mexico State University.Google Scholar
- Grainger, C., Clarke, T., Auldist, M.J., Beauchemin, K.A., McGinn, S.M., Waghorn, G.C. and Eckard, R.J., 2009. Potential use of Acacia mearnsii condensed tannins to reduce methane emissions and nitrogen excretion from grazing dairy cows. Canada Journal of Animal Science, 89, 241–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Guglielmelli, A., Calabrò, S., Primi, R., Carone, F., Cutrignelli, M.I., Tudisco, R., Piccolo, G., Ronchi, B. and Danieli, P.P., 2011. In vitro fermentation patterns and methane production of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) hay with different condensed tannin contents. Grass Forage Science, 66, 488–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kang, S., Wanapat, M., Phesatcha, K., Norrapoke, T., Foiklang, S., Ampapon, T. and Phesatcha, B., 2016. Using krabok (Irvingia malayana) seed oil and Flemingia macrophylla leaf meal as a rumen enhancer in an in vitro gas production system. Animal Production Science. doi: 10.1071/AN15211.Google Scholar
- Menke, K.H., Raab, L., Salewski, A., Steingass, H., Fritz, D. and Schneider, W., 1979. The estimation of the digestibility and metabolizable energy content of ruminant feedstuffs from the gas production when they are incubated with rumen liquor in vitro. Journal of Agricultural Science, (Camb.) 92, 217–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Panyakaew, P., Goela, G., Lourenco, M., Yuangklang, C. and Fievez, V., 2013. Medium-chain fatty acids from coconut or krabok oil inhibit in vitro rumen methanogenesis and conversion of non-conjugated dienoic biohydrogenation intermediates. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 180, 18–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- SAS (Statistical Analysis System), 2013. User’s Guide: Statistic, Version 9.4th Edition. SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC.Google Scholar
- Van Soest, P. and Robertson, J.B., 1985. A laboratory manual for animal science. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, page. 612.Google Scholar
- Wanapat, M. and Poungchompu, O., 2001. Method for estimation of tannin by vanillin-HCl method (A modified method of Burns, 1971). Department of Animal Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 4002, Thailand.Google Scholar
- Yuangklang, C., Khotsakdee, J., Vasupen, K., Panyakeaw, P. and Bureenok, S., 2010. Effect of krabok oil level on feed intake, nutrient digestion and rumen fermentation in meat goats. Proceedings of the 13th AITVM Conference, Bangkok, Thailand, 23–26 August 2010, pp. 238–239.Google Scholar