Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 48, Issue 7, pp 1449–1454 | Cite as

Supplementation of Flemingia macrophylla and cassava foliage as a rumen enhancer on fermentation efficiency and estimated methane production in dairy steers

  • Burarat Phesatcha
  • Metha WanapatEmail author
  • Kampanat Phesatcha
  • Thiwakorn Ampapon
  • Sungchhang Kang
Regular Articles


Four rumen-fistulated dairy steers, 3 years old with 180 ± 15 kg body weight (BW), were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to investigate on the effect of Flemingia macrophylla hay meal (FMH) and cassava hay meal (CH) supplementation on rumen fermentation efficiency and estimated methane production. The treatments were as follows: T1 = non-supplement, T2 = CH supplementation at 150 g/head/day, T3 = FMH supplementation at 150 g/head/day, and T4 = CH + FMH supplementation at 75 and 75 g/head/day. All steers were fed rice straw ad libitum and concentrate was offered at 0.5 % of BW. Results revealed that supplementation of CH and/or FMH did not affect on feed intake (P > 0.05) while digestibility of crude protein and neutral detergent fiber were increased especially in steers receiving FMH and CH+FMH (P < 0.05). Ruminal pH, temperature, and blood urea nitrogen were similar among treatments while ammonia nitrogen was increased in all supplemented groups (P < 0.05). Furthermore, propionic acid (C3) was increased while acetic acid (C2), C2:C3 ratio, and estimated methane production were decreased by dietary treatments. Protozoa and fungi population were not affected by dietary supplement while viable bacteria count increased in steers receiving FMH. Supplementation of FMH and/or FMH+CH increased microbial crude protein and efficiency of microbial nitrogen supply. This study concluded FMH (150 g/head/day) and/or CH+FMH (75 and 75 g/head/day) supplementation could be used as a rumen enhancer for increasing nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation efficiency, and microbial protein synthesis while decreasing estimated methane production without adverse effect on voluntary feed intake of dairy steers fed rice straw.


Cassava hay Dairy steers Flemingia macrophylla Methane Rice straw Fermentation efficiency 



The authors would like to express their most sincere thanks to the Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center (TROFREC), Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand, and the Office of the Higher Education Commission and Thailand Research Fund (TRF) through the Royal Golden Jubilee Ph.D. Program for providing financial support and the use of research facilities, especially supporting the first author for the straight Ph.D. degree pursuit.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Research involving human participants and/or animals

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Burarat Phesatcha
    • 1
  • Metha Wanapat
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kampanat Phesatcha
    • 1
  • Thiwakorn Ampapon
    • 1
  • Sungchhang Kang
    • 2
  1. 1.Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center (TROFREC), Department of Animal Science, Faculty of AgricultureKhon Kaen UniversityKhon KaenThailand
  2. 2.Agricultural Unit, Department of EducationNational Institute of EducationPhnom PenhCambodia

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