Supplementation of Flemingia macrophylla and cassava foliage as a rumen enhancer on fermentation efficiency and estimated methane production in dairy steers
- 292 Downloads
Four rumen-fistulated dairy steers, 3 years old with 180 ± 15 kg body weight (BW), were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to investigate on the effect of Flemingia macrophylla hay meal (FMH) and cassava hay meal (CH) supplementation on rumen fermentation efficiency and estimated methane production. The treatments were as follows: T1 = non-supplement, T2 = CH supplementation at 150 g/head/day, T3 = FMH supplementation at 150 g/head/day, and T4 = CH + FMH supplementation at 75 and 75 g/head/day. All steers were fed rice straw ad libitum and concentrate was offered at 0.5 % of BW. Results revealed that supplementation of CH and/or FMH did not affect on feed intake (P > 0.05) while digestibility of crude protein and neutral detergent fiber were increased especially in steers receiving FMH and CH+FMH (P < 0.05). Ruminal pH, temperature, and blood urea nitrogen were similar among treatments while ammonia nitrogen was increased in all supplemented groups (P < 0.05). Furthermore, propionic acid (C3) was increased while acetic acid (C2), C2:C3 ratio, and estimated methane production were decreased by dietary treatments. Protozoa and fungi population were not affected by dietary supplement while viable bacteria count increased in steers receiving FMH. Supplementation of FMH and/or FMH+CH increased microbial crude protein and efficiency of microbial nitrogen supply. This study concluded FMH (150 g/head/day) and/or CH+FMH (75 and 75 g/head/day) supplementation could be used as a rumen enhancer for increasing nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation efficiency, and microbial protein synthesis while decreasing estimated methane production without adverse effect on voluntary feed intake of dairy steers fed rice straw.
KeywordsCassava hay Dairy steers Flemingia macrophylla Methane Rice straw Fermentation efficiency
The authors would like to express their most sincere thanks to the Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center (TROFREC), Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand, and the Office of the Higher Education Commission and Thailand Research Fund (TRF) through the Royal Golden Jubilee Ph.D. Program for providing financial support and the use of research facilities, especially supporting the first author for the straight Ph.D. degree pursuit.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Research involving human participants and/or animals
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- AOAC., 2012. Official Methods of Analysis, 19th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Gaithersburg, MD.Google Scholar
- Beauchemin, K.A., McGinn, S.M., Martinez, T.F. and McAllister, T.A., 2007. Use of condensed tannin extract from quebracho trees to reduce methane emissions from cattle. Journal of Animal Sciences, 85, 1990-1996.Google Scholar
- Binh, D.B., Tien, N.P. and Mui, N.T., 1998. Study on biomass yield and quality of Flemingia macrophylla and on soil fertility. Proceedings of Workshop of Animal Nutrition Science Ministry of Agriculture, Hanoi, Vietnam. 137.Google Scholar
- Chen, X. B. and Gomes, M. J., 1995. Estimation of microbial protein supply to sheep and cattle based on urinary excretion of purine derivatives–an overview of the technical details. Occasional Publication 1992. International Feed Resources Unit, Rowett Research Institude, Aberdeen, United Kingdom. pp. 21-25.Google Scholar
- Galyean, M., 1989. Laboratory Procedure in Animal Nutrition Research. Department of Animal and Range Sciences, New Mexico State University, New Mexico.Google Scholar
- Guglielmelli, A., Calabrò, S., Primi, R., Carone, F., Cutrignelli, M.I., Tudisco, R., Piccolo, G., Ronchi, B. and Danieli, P.P., 2011. In vitro fermentation patterns and methane production of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) hay with different condensed tannin contents. Grass Forage Science, 66, 488–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hess, H.D., Monsalve, L.M., Lascano, C.E., Carulla, J.E., Dı´az, T.E. and Kreuzer, M., 2003. Supplementation of a tropical grass diet with forage legumes and Sapindus saponaria fruits: effects on in vitro ruminal nitrogen turnover and methanogenesis. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 54, 703–713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hungate, R.E., 1969. A Role tube method for cultivation of strict anaerobes. Method in microbiology.(Eds., J.R. Norris and D.W. Ribbons). New York, Academic. NY. 313.Google Scholar
- Makkar, H.P.S., Becker, K., Abel, H.J. and Szegletti, C., 1995. Degradation of condensed tannins by rumen microbes exposed to quebracho tannins (QT) in rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC) and effects of QT on fermentative processes in the RUSITEC. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 69, 495–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- McNeill, D.M., Osborne, N., Komolong, M. and Nankervis, D., 1998. Condensed tannins in the Leucaena genus and their nutritional significance for ruminants. In: Shelton, H.M., Gutteridge, R.C., Mullin, B.F., Bray, R.A. (Eds.), Leucaena—Adaptation, Quality and Farming Systems, ACIAR Proceedings No. 86. ACIAR, Canberra. 205–214.Google Scholar
- Naumann, H.D., Muir, J.P., Lambert, B.D., Tedeschi, L.O. and Kothmann, M.M., 2013. Condensed tannins in the ruminant environment: a perspective on biological activity. Journal of Agricultural Science, 1, 8-20.Google Scholar
- Samuel, M., Sagathewan, S., Thomus, J. and Mathen, G., 1997. An HPLC method for estimation of volatile fatty acids of rumen fluid. Indian Journal of Animal Science, 67, 805-807.Google Scholar
- SAS (Statistical Analysis System), 2013. User’s Guide: Statistic, Version 9.4th Edition. SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC.Google Scholar
- Steel, R.G.D. and Torrie, J.H., 1980. Principles and Procedures of Statistics. McGraw Hill Book, New York, NY.Google Scholar
- Wanapat, M. and Poungchompu, O., 2001. Method for estimation of tannin by vanillin-HCl method (A modified method of Burns, 1971). Department of Animal Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 4002, Thailand.Google Scholar
- Williamsa, C.M., Eun, J.-S., MacAdamb, J.W., Young, A.J., Fellner, V. and Min, B.R., 2011. Effects of forage legumes containing condensed tannins on methane and ammonia production in continuous cultures of mixed ruminal microorganisms. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 166–167, 364– 372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar