Serological evidence of type 2 (North American genotype) porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Nepal
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has spread throughout Asia, causing significant losses to commercial farmers and smallholders. However, little is known about PRRS in Nepal, a South Asian country with a gradually increasing pig industry. In 2011, a pilot project was initiated to identify the status of PRRSV in pigs of the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal. Out of 98 serum samples, 31 (32 %; 95 % CI 23–42 %) were found positive by ELISA. All positive samples belonged to the type 2 (North American) genotype. Molecular evaluation by real-time PCR however did not yield positive results. At the herd level, seropositivity was associated with a history of abortion and premature birth. Veterinarians, farmers and government should be aware of this threat to the Nepalese pig industry and initiate an appropriate response.
KeywordsDiagnosis Nepal Pigs PRRS Risk factors
We are grateful to Dr Tony Williams, Dr Ram Krishna Khatiwada, Dr Kishan Chand Thakuri, Dr Bal Bahadur Chand, Dr Damodar Sedai, Dr Khadak Singh Bisht, Dr Bishnu Bahadur Adhikari, and others who have supported this study. Similarly, the Department of Livestock Services (DLS), Directorate of Animal Health (DAH), and Central Veterinary Laboratory (CVL) are also acknowledged for giving permission to conduct this study.
Compliance with ethical standard
This study was funded by the FAO Technical Assistance to Avian Influenza Control Programme (grant number UTF/NEP/061/NEP).
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
- Deka, R. P., Grace, D.,, Lapar, M. L.,, Lindahl, J.,, 2014. Sharing lessons of smallholders’ pig system in South Asia and Southeast Asia: A review. Presented at the National Conference on Opportunities and Strategies for Sustainable Pig Production, Guwahati, India, 20–21 December 2014. Nairobi, Kenya: ILRI. https://cgspace.cgiar.org/handle/10568/53928. Accessed 24 Nov 2015
- Devleesschauwer, B., Pruvot, M.,, Joshi, D. D.,, De Craeye, S.,, Jennes, M.,, Ale, A.,, Welinski, A.,, Lama, S.,, Aryal, A.,, Victor, B.,, Duchateau, L.,, Speybroeck, N.,, Vercruysse, J.,, Dorny, P.,, 2013. Seroprevalence of zoonotic parasites in pigs slaughtered in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal. Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 13, 872–876.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Devleesschauwer, B., Torgerson, P.,, Charlier, J.,, Levecke, B.,, Praet, N.,, Roelandt, S.,, Smit, S.,, Dorny, P.,, Berkvens, D.,, Speybroeck, N.,, 2014. prevalence: Tools for prevalence assessment studies. R package version 0.4.0. http://cran.r-project.org/package=prevalence. Accessed 24 Nov 2015.
- Dhakal, S., Joshi, D. D.,, Ale, A.,, Sharma, M.,, Dahal, M.,, Shah, Y.,, Pant, D. K.,, Stephen, C.,, 2014. Regional variation in pig farmer awareness and actions regarding Japanese encephalitis in Nepal: implications for public health education. PLOS ONE 9, e85399.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jantafong, T., Sangtong, P., Saenglub, W., Mungkundar, C., Romlamduan, N., Lekchareonsuk, C., Lekcharoensuk P., 2015. Genetic diversity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Thailand and Southeast Asia from 2008 to 2013. Veterinary Microbiology 176, 229–238.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- K. C., M., Joshi, B. R.,, Shrestha, S. P.,, Prajapati, M.,, Kathayat, D.,, Dhakal, S.,, 2015. Sero-prevalence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) in pigs of different developmental regions of Nepal. International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology 3, 218–222Google Scholar
- Keffaber, K. K., 1989. Reproductive failure of unknown etiology. American Association of Swine Practitioners Newsletter 1, 1–9.Google Scholar
- MOAC, 2010. Statistical Information on Nepalese Agriculture 2009/10. Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Government of Nepal, Singha Durbar, Kathmandu, Nepal.Google Scholar
- MOAD, 2014. Statistical Information on Nepalese Agriculture 2013/14. Ministry of Agricultural Development, Government of Nepal, Singha Durbar, Kathmandu, Nepal. http://www.moad.gov.np/uploads/files/Year%20book%202014.pdf. Accessed 24 Nov 2015.Google Scholar
- Neumann, E. J., Kliebenstein, J. B.,, Johnson, C. D.,, Mabry, J. W.,, Bush, E. J.,, Seitzinger, A. H.,, Green, A. L.,, Zimmerman, J. J.,, 2005. Assessment of the economic impact of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome on swine production in the United States. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 227, 385–392.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nguyen, V. G., Kim, H. K.,, Moon, H. J.,, Park, S. J.,, Chung, H. C.,, Choi, M. K.,, Park, B. K.,, 2015. Evolutionary dynamics of a highly pathogenic type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: Analyses of envelope protein-coding genes. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 62, 411–420.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rajkhowa, T.K., Jagan Mohanarao, G., Gogoi, A., Hauhnar, L., Isaac, L., 2015. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) from the first outbreak of India shows close relationship with the highly pathogenic variant of China. Veterinary Quarterly 35, 186–193.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stadejek, T., Oleksiewicz, M. B.,, Pejsak, Z.,, 2007. Development of ELISA tests for detecting infections of European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Medycyna Weterynaryjna 63, 1336–1341.Google Scholar
- Tian, K., Yu, X.,, Zhao, T.,, Feng, Y.,, Cao, Z.,, Wang, C.,, Hu, Y.,, Chen, X.,, Hu, D.,, Tian, X.,, Liu, D.,, Zhang, S.,, Deng, X.,, Ding, Y.,, Yang, L.,, Zhang, Y.,, Xiao, H.,, Qiao, M.,, Wang, B.,, Hou, L.,, Wang, X.,, Yang, X.,, Kang, L.,, Sun, M.,, Jin, P.,, Wang, S.,, Kitamura, Y.,, Yan, J.,, Gao, G. F.,, 2007. Emergence of fatal PRRSV variants: Unparalleled outbreaks of atypical PRRS in China and molecular dissection of the unique hallmark. PLOS ONE, 2, e526.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- World Organisation for Animal Health, 2014. World Animal Health Information Database (WAHID) Interface. http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Wahidhome/Home. Accessed 24 Nov 2015.