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Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 47, Issue 2, pp 383–389 | Cite as

Seroprevalence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) and evaluation of risk factors in camels of the Sultanate of Oman

  • Muhammad Hammad Hussain
  • Muhammad Saqib
  • Mahir Gharib Al-Maawali
  • Salim Al-Makhladi
  • Mohammed Somar Al-Zadjali
  • Talal Al-Sidairi
  • Saud Asubaihi
  • Abdulmajeed Al-Rawahi
  • Muhammad Khalid Mansoor
Regular Articles

Abstract

Johne’s disease (JD) is a World Animal Health Organization (OIE)-listed disease of ruminants including camels with serious economic impacts worldwide. A cross-sectional serological survey involving multistage simple random sampling was conducted to investigate the prevalence of JD in camels of Oman. In total, 2255 camels (254 males and 2001 females) and different ages from 553 geographically marked holdings were bled for serum. The samples were analyzed by a commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with protein ‘G’ as conjugate (LSI VET Ruminant Serum Paratuberculosis Advanced, France). Results indicated a widespread herd and individual level seroprevalence, respectively of 9.2 % (95 % CI = 0.7–50) and 2.6 % (95 % CI = 2.0–3.4) in Oman. Differences (p < 0.01) were observed regarding the prevalence of JD in sampled governorates, and the highest prevalence was recorded in Dhofar (13.5 %). Higher (p > 0.05) seroprevalence was observed in females (2.8 %), and their odds for testing positive were 3.69 (95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.90–15.23) times higher as compared to males (0.8 %). Seropositivity increased with the age of camels, and the highest prevalence (4.4 %) was observed in camels of more than 10 years of age (p = 0.03). Large and medium size herds (odds ratio (OR) = 1.77, 95 % CI = 0.96–3.24) where camels were kept as single species (OR = 1.54, 95 % CI = 0.84–2.84) and confined (OR = 1.93, 95 % CI = 1.05–3.54) were found more likely to test positive. This is the first record of seroprevalence of JD among the camels in the country which highlights their potential as an important host of the disease. The results advocate that a comprehensive control program based upon further risk analysis and molecular study should be devised in Oman.

Keywords

Johne’s disease Camels ELISA Seroprevalence Oman 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Financial support for the project was provided by the Agriculture and Fisheries Developmental Fund (AFDF) of Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Sultanate of Oman.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Hammad Hussain
    • 1
    • 2
  • Muhammad Saqib
    • 2
  • Mahir Gharib Al-Maawali
    • 1
  • Salim Al-Makhladi
    • 1
  • Mohammed Somar Al-Zadjali
    • 1
  • Talal Al-Sidairi
    • 3
  • Saud Asubaihi
    • 3
  • Abdulmajeed Al-Rawahi
    • 1
  • Muhammad Khalid Mansoor
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Animal Health Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture & FisheriesMuscatOman
  2. 2.Department of Clinical Medicine and SurgeryUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan
  3. 3.Animal Production Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture & FisheriesMuscatOman
  4. 4.Institute of MicrobiologyUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan

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