Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 47, Issue 1, pp 191–200 | Cite as

Milk production, intake, digestion, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of cows supplemented with by-products from the biodiesel industry

  • Severino Gonzaga Neto
  • Ronaldo Lopes Oliveira
  • Francisco Helton Sá de Lima
  • Ariosvaldo Nunes de Medeiros
  • Leilson Rocha BezerraEmail author
  • Júlio Viégas
  • Nilton Guedes do NascimentoJr.
  • Marcondes Dias de Freitas Neto
Regular Articles


This study aimed to evaluate the intake, digestion, blood parameters, and feeding behavior of crossbred dairy cows (Holstein × Gir) managed on Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 and provided supplementation with groundnut cake, sunflower cake, or palm kernel cake (to replace soybean meal). Sixteen cows were randomly assigned in a Latin square design with four treatments and four experimental periods. The consumption of nutrients from the pasture did not vary between experimental treatments. Cows receiving the palm kernel cake supplement had a reduced crude protein, non-fibrous carbohydrate, and total digestible nutrient intake and an increase in the average consumption of ether extract. There was also a reduction in the digestibility of dry matter. The inclusion of supplements in the diet did not influence the average time spent eating, ruminating, or resting. The mean values of respiratory and heart rates showed thermal comfort during the trial period. There was a reduction in blood urea nitrogen with palm kernel cake supplementation, and the values of total protein, albumin, and glucose were also significantly different with this supplement. It is recommended that cakes of groundnut cake and sunflower cake seed be used for a total replacement of soybean meal supplements for lactating cows, but the use of palm kernel cake is not recommended.


Alternative food Dairy cattle Protein sources Animal nutrition Supplementation 


Conflict of interest

The authors declare they have no conflicts of interest with regard to the work presented in this report.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Severino Gonzaga Neto
    • 1
  • Ronaldo Lopes Oliveira
    • 2
  • Francisco Helton Sá de Lima
    • 3
  • Ariosvaldo Nunes de Medeiros
    • 1
  • Leilson Rocha Bezerra
    • 4
    Email author
  • Júlio Viégas
    • 5
  • Nilton Guedes do NascimentoJr.
    • 2
  • Marcondes Dias de Freitas Neto
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of ZootecniaFederal University of ParaíbaAreiaBrazil
  2. 2.Department of ZootecniaFederal University of BahiaSalvadorBrazil
  3. 3.Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of South of Minas GeraisMuzambinhoBrazil
  4. 4.Department of ZootecniaFederal University of PiauíBom JesusBrazil
  5. 5.Department of ZootecniaFederal University of Santa MariaSanta MariaBrazil

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