Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 46, Issue 8, pp 1463–1466

Occurrence and risk factors associated to Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

  • Rachel Ingrid Juliboni Cosendey-KezenLeite
  • Francisco Carlos Rodrigues de Oliveira
  • Edwards Frazão-Teixeira
  • Jitender Prakash Dubey
  • Guilherme Nunes de Souza
  • Ana Maria Reis Ferreira
  • Walter Lilenbaum
Regular Articles

Abstract

Toxoplasmosis is an important cause of abortion in sheep and a zoonotic risk to humans, leading to significant hazards to health and to economic losses. This study examined the seroprevalence and associated risk factors for infection with Toxoplasma gondii in 379 sheep from 12 flocks in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. Using the modified agglutination test (MAT), 202 (53.3 %) of 379 were seropositive with titers of 1:25 in 65, 1:50 in 40, 1:100 in 23, 1:200 in 11, 1:400 in 36, 1:800 in 7, 1:1,600 in 1, and 1:3,200 or higher in 19 sheep. The most significant factors associated with T. gondii seropositivity in sheep were age, gender, and veterinary care. Finding of T. gondii antibodies in 97 of the 202 sheep in titers of 1:100 or higher is indicative of persistently infected animals. This high level of seropositivity requires urgent control measures to reduce impact on animal productivity and public health.

Keywords

Risk factors Serology Toxoplasmosis Sheep Brazil 

References

  1. Andrade, M.M.C., Carneiro, M., Medeiros, A.D., Neto, V.A., Vitor, R.W.A., 2013. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with ovine toxoplasmosis in Northeast Brazil. Parasite, 20, 20.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. CDC, 2010. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://wwwn.cdc.gov/epiinfo/html/downloads.htm
  3. Costa, D. G., Marvulo, M. F., Silva, J. S., Santana, S. C., Magalhães, F. J., Lima Filho, C. D., Ribeiro, V. O., Alves, L. C., Mota, R. A., Dubey, J. P, Silva, J. C., 2012. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic and wild animals from the Fernando De Noronha, Brazil. Journal of Parasitology, 98 (3), 679--680.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dubey, J.P., 2009. Toxoplasmosis in sheep – the last 20 years. Veterinary Parasitology, 163, 1–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dubey, J.P., 2010. Toxoplasmosis of Animals and Humans. Second Edition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1–313.Google Scholar
  6. Dubey, J.P. and Desmonts, G., 1987. Serological responses of equids fed Toxoplasma gondii oocysts. Equine Veterinary Journal, 19 (4), 337--343.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dubey, J.P., Lago, E.G., Gennari, S.M., Su, C., Jones, J.L., 2012. Toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Brazil: high prevalence, high burden of disease, and epidemiology. Parasitology, 139 (11), 1375--1424.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. FAO, 2010. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: FAOSTAT Database. http://faostat.fao.org.
  9. Halos, L., Thébault, A., Aubert, D., Thomas, M., Perret, C., Geers, R., Alliot, A., Escotte-Binet, S., Ajzenberg, D., Dardé, M.L., Durand, B., Boireau, P., Villena, I., 2010. An innovative survey underlining the significant level of contamination by Toxoplasma gondii of ovine meat consumed in France. International Journal for Parasitology, 40, 193--200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. IBGE, 2002. Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística: Produção da Pecuária Municipal 2002, 30, Brasil. http://biblioteca.ibge.gov.br/visualizacao/periodicos/84/ppm_2002_v30_br.pdf
  11. IBGE, 2010. Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/estatistica/economia/ppm/2010/tabelas_pdf/tab17.pdf
  12. IBGE, 2012. Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística: Produção da Pecuária Municipal 2012, 40, Brasil. http://biblioteca.ibge.gov.br/visualizacao/periodicos/84/ppm_2012_v40_br.pdf
  13. Lemeshow, S., Hosmer, D.W., 1984. Estimating odds ratios with categorically scaled covariates in multiple logistic regression analysis. American Journal of Epidemiology, 119 (2), 147--151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Luciano, D.M., Menezes, R.C., Ferreira, L.C., Nicolau, J.L., das Neves, L.B., Luciano, R.M., Dahroug, M.A.A., Amendoeira, M.R.R., 2011. Seroepidemiology of toxoplasmosis in goats and sheep from three counties of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira, 31 (7), 569--574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Martins, G., Penna, B., Hamond, C., Leite, R.C., Silva, A., Ferreira, A., Brandão, F., Oliveira, F., Lilenbaum, W., 2012. Leptospirosis as the most frequent infectious disease impairing productivity in small ruminants in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 44 (4), 773--777.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mendonça, C.E.D’.A., Barros, S.L.B., Guimarães, A.A., Ferraudo, A.S., Munhoz, A.D., 2013. Prevalence and risk factors associated to ovine toxoplasmosis in northeastern Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, 22 (2), 230--234.Google Scholar
  17. Moraes, L. M., Raimundo, J. M., Guimarães, A., Santos, H.A., Macedo Junior, G. de L., Massard, C. L., Machado, R. Z., Baldani, C.D., 2011. Occurrence of anti-Neospora caninum and anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies in goats and sheep in western Maranhão, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, 20 (4), 312--317.Google Scholar
  18. Ogawa, L., Navarro, I. T., Freire, R. L., Oliveira, R. C., Vidotto, O., 2003. Ocorrência de anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii em ovinos da região de Londrina no Estado do Paraná. Semina: Ciências Agrárias, 24 (1), 57--62.Google Scholar
  19. Sakata, F.B.L.S., Bellato, V., Sartor, A.A., de Moura, A.B..., de Souza, A.P., Farias, J.A., 2012. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies sheep in Lages, Santa Catarina, Brazil, and comparison using IFA and ELISA. Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, 21 (3), 196--200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Silva, A.V., Cunha, E.L.P., Meireles, L.R., Gottschalks, A., Motta, R.A., Langoni, H., 2003. Toxoplasmose em ovinos e caprinos: estudo soroepidemiológico em duas regiões do Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. Ciência Rural, 33 (1), 115--119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Tesolini, P.M.A., Leão, A.G.C., Beltrame, M.A.V., Gumeiro, M.V., Barioni. G., 2012. Soroprevalência de anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii em ovinos da raça Santa Inês na região da Grande Vitória, estado do Espírito Santo. Revista Brasileira de Ciência Veterinária, 19 (1), 38--41Google Scholar
  22. Ueno, T.E., Gonçalves, V.S., Heinemann, M.B., Dilli, T.L., Akimoto, B.M., de Souza, S.L., Gennari, S.M., Soares, R.M., 2009. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum infections in sheep from Federal District, central region of Brazil. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 41 (4), 547--552.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Van Der Puije, W.N.A., Bosompem, K.M., Canacoo, E.A., Wastling, J.M., Akanmori, B.D., 2000. The prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in Ghanaian sheep and goats. Acta Tropica, 76 (1), 21--26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rachel Ingrid Juliboni Cosendey-KezenLeite
    • 1
  • Francisco Carlos Rodrigues de Oliveira
    • 2
  • Edwards Frazão-Teixeira
    • 2
  • Jitender Prakash Dubey
    • 3
  • Guilherme Nunes de Souza
    • 4
  • Ana Maria Reis Ferreira
    • 5
  • Walter Lilenbaum
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratório de Bacteriologia AnimalUniversidade Federal FluminenseNiteróiBrazil
  2. 2.Laboratório de Sanidade AnimalUniversidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy RibeiroCampos dos GoytacazesBrazil
  3. 3.Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Animal Parasitic Diseases LaboratoryUnited States Department of AgricultureBeltsvilleUSA
  4. 4.EMBRAPA Gado de LeiteJuiz de ForaBrazil
  5. 5.Departamento de Patologia Clínica e ReproduçãoUniversidade Federal FluminenseNiteróiBrazil

Personalised recommendations