Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 46, Issue 8, pp 1497–1502 | Cite as

Feeding value of hays of tropical forage legumes in pigs: Vigna unguiculata, Psophocarpus scandens, Pueraria phaseoloides and Stylosanthes guianensis

  • Bienvenu Kambashi
  • Christelle Boudry
  • Pascale Picron
  • Honoré Kiatoko
  • Jérôme Bindelle
Short Communications


The effects of four tropical forage legume hays (Vigna unguiculata, Psophocarpus scandens, Pueraria phaseoloides and Stylosanthes guianensis) on voluntary feed intake (VFI) and their nutritive value were studied in growing pigs using a corn-soybean meal-based diet containing varying proportions of forage legume hays (0, 10, 20 and 40 % or 0, 12.5 and 25 % for VFI and nutritive value determination, respectively). There was no difference in VFI between species (P > 0.20), but a linear response to forage inclusion level (P < 0.05) was observed decreasing from 126 for 0 % to approximately 84 g/kg of body weight for the 40 % forage diets, except for V. unguiculata, where the response was quadratic (P = 0.01). All four forage species linearly decreased the total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) from 0.76 to 0.61, 0.80 to 0.68, 0.54 to 0.40 and 0.58 to 0.31 except for S. guianensis (0.44) for DM, N, NDF and N retention, respectively. Differences in digestibility (P < 0.05) between species were also observed. Due to their negative influence on the overall digestibility, the contribution of hays should not exceed 12.5 %, except for S. guianensis, in which N retention remained quite high (0.44) at the highest inclusion level (25 %). P. phaseoloides hay should be avoided in pigs as it combines the lowest VFI with the lowest nutrient digestibility.


Tropical forage legumes Pigs Nutritive value 



The authors gratefully acknowledge Wallonie-Bruxelles International (Brussels, Belgium) for funding this study (CAVTK project) and the workers in Kolo-Fuma (SEBO, Bas-Congo, DRC) for their support.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. AOAC. 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. In: A. O. A. Chemists (ed.) No. 15th ed. (Association Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington)Google Scholar
  2. Bach Knudsen, K. E., 2001. The nutritional significance of “dietary fibre” analysis, Animal Feed Science and Technology, 90, 3--20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bindelle, J., Sinnaeve, G., Dardenne, P., Leterme, P. and Buldgen, A. 2005. A rapid estimation of nitrogen bound to neutral detergent fibre in forages by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. In: F.P. O’Mara, R.J. Wilkins, L. ‘t Mannetje, D.K. Lovett, P.A.M Rogers and T.M. Boland (eds), Proceedings of the XXth International Grassland Congress, 26 June- 1 July 2005, University College Dublin, 259--260Google Scholar
  4. Bindelle, J., Buldgen, A., Wavreille, J., Agneessens, R., Destain, J.P., Wathelet, B. and Leterme, P., 2007. The source of fermentable carbohydrates influences the in vitro protein synthesis by colonic bacteria isolated from pigs. Animal, 1, 1126--1133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hagerman, A., Harvey-Mueller, I. and Makkar, H.P.S., 2000. Quantification of tannins in tree foliage–a laboratory manual. FAO/IAEA, Vienna, 31p. Accessed 23 March 2013
  6. Kambashi, B., Picron P., Boudry, B. and Bindelle, J., 2014. Forage plants as an alternative feed resource for sustainable pig production in the tropics: a review, Animal, 1--14Google Scholar
  7. Kambashi, B., Picron P., Boudry, B., Théwis, A., Kiatoko, H. and Bindelle, J., 2014. Nutritive value of tropical forage plants fed to pigs in the Western provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Animal Feed Science and Technology, 191, 47--56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kaensombath, L. and Lindberg, J. E., 2013. Effect of replacing soybean protein by taro leaf (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) protein on growth performance of exotic (Landrace x Yorkshire) and native (Moo Lath) Lao pigs, Tropical Animal Health and Production, 45, 45--51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kaensombath, L., Neil, M. and Lindberg, J.E., 2013. Effect of replacing soybean protein with protein from ensiled stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis (Aubl.) Sw. var. guianensis) on growth performance, carcass traits and organ weights of exotic (Landrace x Yorkshire) and native (Moo Lath) Lao pigs, Tropical Animal Health Production, 45, 865--871PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Len, N.T., Lindberg, J.E. and Ogle, B., 2007. Digestibility and nitrogen retention of diets containing different levels of fibre in local (Mong Cai), F1 (Mong Cai x Yorkshire) and exotic (Landrace x Yorkshire) growing pigs in Vietnam, Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 91, 297--303PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Leterme, P., Boteroa, M., Londoñoa, A.M., Bindelle, J. and Buldgen, A., 2006. Nutritive value of tropical tree leaf meals in adult sows, Animal Science, 82, 175--182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Leterme, P., Froidmont, E., Rossi, F. and Thewis, A., 1998. The high water-holding capacity of pea inner fibers affects the ileal flow of endogenous amino acids in pigs, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 46, 1927--1934CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Leterme, P., Londoño, A.M., Estrada, F., Souffrant, W.B. and Buldgen, A., 2005. Chemical composition, nutritive value and voluntary intake of tropical tree foliage and cocoyam in pigs, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 85, 1725--1732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Leterme, P., Londono, A.M., Munoz, J.E., Suarez, J., Bedoya, C.A., Souffrant, W.B. and Buldgen, A., 2009. Nutritional value of aquatic ferns (Azolla filiculoides Lam. and Salvinia molesta Mitchell) in pigs, Animal Feed Science and Technology, 149, 135--148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lynch, M.B., Sweeney, T., Callan, J.J. and O’Doherty, J.V., 2007. Effects of increasing the intake of dietary b-glucans by exchanging wheat for barley on nutrient digestibility, nitrogen excretion, intestinal microflora, volatile fatty acid concentration and manure ammonia emissions in finishing pigs, Animal, 1, 812--819PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Negesse, T., Makkar, H.P.S. and Becker, K., 2009. Nutritive value of some non-conventional feed resources of Ethiopia determined by chemical analyses and an in vitro gas method, Animal Feed Science and Technology, 154, 204--217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Noblet, J. and Le Goff, G., 2001. Effect of dietary fibre on the energy value of feeds for pigs, Animal feed science and technology, 90, 35--52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Phengsavanh, P. and Lindberg, J., 2013. Effect of replacing soybean protein with protein from porcupine joint vetch (Aeschynomene histrix BRA 9690) and stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis Composite) leaf meal on growth performance of native (Moo Lath) Lao pigs, Tropical Animal Health and Production, 45,1795--1802PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Régnier, C., Bocage, B., Archimède, H., Noblet, J. and Renaudeau, D., 2013. Digestive utilization of tropical foliages of cassava, sweet potatoes, wild cocoyam and erythrina in Creole growing pigs, Animal Feed Science and Technology, 180, 44--54Google Scholar
  20. Van Soest, P. J., Robertson, J. B. and Lewis, B. A., 1991. Methods for Dietary Fiber, Neutral Detergent Fiber, and Nonstarch Polysaccharides in Relation to Animal Nutrition, Journal of Dairy Science 74, 3583--3597.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bienvenu Kambashi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Christelle Boudry
    • 2
  • Pascale Picron
    • 2
  • Honoré Kiatoko
    • 1
  • Jérôme Bindelle
    • 2
  1. 1.Université de KinshasaLembaDemocratic Republic of the Congo
  2. 2.Animal Science Unit, Gembloux Agro-Bio TechUniversity of LiègeGemblouxBelgium

Personalised recommendations