Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 46, Issue 5, pp 739–745 | Cite as

Case–control study on risk factors associated with Brucella Melitensis in goat farms in Peninsular Malaysia

  • Pwaveno Huladeino Bamaiyi
  • Latiffah HassanEmail author
  • Siti Khairani-Bejo
  • Mohamed ZainalAbidin
  • Mohamed Ramlan
  • Nookaya Krishnan
  • Azri Adzhar
  • Nahariah Abdullah
  • Nik Husin M. Hamidah
  • Mokthar M. Norsuhanna
  • Siti N. Hashim
Regular Articles


Caprine brucellosis is a bacterial zoonotic infection affecting goats especially in developing countries all over the world. In Malaysia, the risk factors associated with this infection in farms have not been studied. A case–control study was carried out in goat farms in four states of Malaysia to elucidate the risk factors associated with the infection on the farms using structured questionnaires and face-to-face interviews. Results indicate that the introduction of new animals (OR = 5.25; 90 % CI = 1.46, 18.88), younger age category of farms (OR = 5.53; 90 % CI = 1.09, 21.66), and farms with single breed of goats (OR = 8.50; 90 % CI = 1.27, 41.97) were significant risk factors for brucellosis. In order to control brucellosis or possibly eradicate it in goat farms, these factors need to be dealt with. Enforcing stringent importation protocols or complete ban of goat importation from brucellosis endemic countries will help reduce risk of introducing new infection into the country.


Case–control Brucella melitensis Risk factors Goats Farms Malaysia 



The authors wish to acknowledge all the staff of the Department of Veterinary Services of Malaysia at state and district levels for their cooperation and untiring efforts towards the success of this study. The farmers are acknowledged for their patience and cooperation.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pwaveno Huladeino Bamaiyi
    • 1
  • Latiffah Hassan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Siti Khairani-Bejo
    • 1
  • Mohamed ZainalAbidin
    • 2
  • Mohamed Ramlan
    • 3
  • Nookaya Krishnan
    • 4
  • Azri Adzhar
    • 4
  • Nahariah Abdullah
    • 5
  • Nik Husin M. Hamidah
    • 6
  • Mokthar M. Norsuhanna
    • 4
  • Siti N. Hashim
    • 7
  1. 1.Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Agribusiness and Information System, Faculty of AgricultureUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia
  3. 3.Veterinary Research InstituteIpohMalaysia
  4. 4.Department of Veterinary Services HeadquartersPutrajayaMalaysia
  5. 5.Department of Veterinary ServicesNegeriMalaysia
  6. 6.Department of Veterinary ServicesSelangorMalaysia
  7. 7.Department of Veterinary ServicesPulauMalaysia

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