Case–control study on risk factors associated with Brucella Melitensis in goat farms in Peninsular Malaysia
- 321 Downloads
Caprine brucellosis is a bacterial zoonotic infection affecting goats especially in developing countries all over the world. In Malaysia, the risk factors associated with this infection in farms have not been studied. A case–control study was carried out in goat farms in four states of Malaysia to elucidate the risk factors associated with the infection on the farms using structured questionnaires and face-to-face interviews. Results indicate that the introduction of new animals (OR = 5.25; 90 % CI = 1.46, 18.88), younger age category of farms (OR = 5.53; 90 % CI = 1.09, 21.66), and farms with single breed of goats (OR = 8.50; 90 % CI = 1.27, 41.97) were significant risk factors for brucellosis. In order to control brucellosis or possibly eradicate it in goat farms, these factors need to be dealt with. Enforcing stringent importation protocols or complete ban of goat importation from brucellosis endemic countries will help reduce risk of introducing new infection into the country.
KeywordsCase–control Brucella melitensis Risk factors Goats Farms Malaysia
The authors wish to acknowledge all the staff of the Department of Veterinary Services of Malaysia at state and district levels for their cooperation and untiring efforts towards the success of this study. The farmers are acknowledged for their patience and cooperation.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Adamu, M., Mshelia, G.D., Adamu, N. and Ouda, L., 2012. Studies on farmer awareness on caprine abortion and the presence of Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis in selected flocks in an arid zone of Nigeria, Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health, 4, 17-21.Google Scholar
- Anon, 2012. Malaysia2012. Wikipedia.Google Scholar
- Azevedo, S.S., Ferreira Neto, J.S., Dias, R.A., Ferreira, F., Amaku, M., Figueiredo, V.C.F., Lôbo, J.R., Gonçalves, V.S.P., Souza, A.C. and Vasconcellos, S.A., 2009. Situação epidemiológica da brucelose bovina no Estado do Espírito Santo [Epidemiological situation of bovine brucellosis in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil], Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, 61, 19-26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Aziz, A.J., Nor Shahidah, K., Chua, K.B. and Shamshad, S., 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases - A Malaysian Perspective, OIE World Organisation for Animal health Workshop: Regional Representation for Asia and the Pacific.Google Scholar
- Bamaiyi, P.H., Hassan, L., Khairani-Bejo, S., Zainal, M.A., Ramlan, M., Krishnan, N., Adzhar, A., Abdullah, N., Hamidah, N.H.M., Norsuhanna, M.M. and Hashim, S.N., 2012. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Brucella melitensis from Seropositive Goats in Peninsula Malaysia, Tropical Biomedicine, 29, 513-518.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bamaiyi, P.H., Hassan, L., Khairani-Bejo, S. and Zainal, M.A., 2014. Updates on brucellosis in Malaysia and southeast Asia, Malaysian Journal of Veterinary Research, 5, 71-82.Google Scholar
- Bunnell, T., 2004. Malaysia, modernity and the multimedia super corridor: a critical geography of intelligent landscapes, Vol. 4. Routledge.Google Scholar
- Coelho, A., Coelho, A.C., Góis, J., Pinto, M.d.L. and Rodrigues, J., 2008. Multifactorial correspondence analysis of risk factors for sheep and goat brucellosis seroprevalence, Small Ruminant Research, 78, 181-185.Google Scholar
- Currò, V., Marineo, S., Vicari, D., Galuppo, L., Galluzzo, P., Nifosì, D., Pugliese, M., Migliazzo, A., Torina, A. and Caracappa, S., 2012. The isolation of Brucella spp. from sheep and goat farms in Sicily, Small Ruminant Research, 106, Supplement, S2-S5.Google Scholar
- DVS, 2010. Brucella melitensis Veterinary Protocol Malaysia. In: Department of Veterinary Services MoAaA-BI, Malaysia (ed) PVM 1(5): 1/2010. Department of Veterinary Services, Putrajaya, Malaysia, Putrajaya. pp. 1-21.Google Scholar
- Field, A., 2009. Exploring Statistics Using SPSS, Vol. SAGE publications, London.Google Scholar
- Islam, M.A., Khatun, M.M., Werre, S.R., Sriranganathan, N. and Boyle, S.M., 2013. A review of Brucella seroprevalence among humans and animals in Bangladesh with special emphasis on epidemiology, risk factors and control opportunities, Veterinary Microbiology, 166, 317-326.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lopes, L.B., Nicolino, R. and Haddad, J.P.A., 2010. Brucellosis - Risk Factors and Prevalence: A Review, The Open Veterinary Science Journal, 4, 72-84.Google Scholar
- OIE, 2009. Caprine and Ovine Brucellosis (Excluding Brucella ovis), In: OIE (ed). Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals 2009, Vol. OIE-World Organization for Animal Health. pp. 2-8.Google Scholar
- Rahman, A.K.M.A., Saegerman, C., Berkvens, D., Fretin, D., Gani, M.O., Ershaduzzaman, M., Ahmed, M.U. and Emmanuel, A., 2013. Bayesian estimation of true prevalence, sensitivity and specificity of indirect ELISA, Rose Bengal Test and Slow Agglutination Test for the diagnosis of brucellosis in sheep and goats in Bangladesh, Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 110, 242-252.Google Scholar
- Sulima, M. and Venkataraman, K.S., 2010. Economic Losses Due to Brucella melitensis Infection in Sheep and Goats, Tamilnadu Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 6, 191-192.Google Scholar
- Vu, T., 2007. Rethinking the Traditional Concept of Livestock Services: A Study of Response Capacity in Thailand, Malaysia and Vietnam, Pro-Poor Livestock Policy Initiative, 41, 1-60.Google Scholar