Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 46, Issue 1, pp 221–228 | Cite as

Feed intake, nutrient digestibility and ruminal fermentation activities in sheep-fed peanut hulls treated with Trichoderma viride or urea

  • Fawzy M. Abo-Donia
  • Safa N. Abdel-Azim
  • Mona M. Y. Elghandour
  • Abdelfattah Z. M. Salem
  • Germán Buendía
  • N. A. M. Soliman
Regular Articles

Abstract

This study aimed to assess impacts of fungal treatment on the nutritional value of peanut hulls (PH) or urea at the rate of 5 kg/100 g of PH. Fermented sugar beet pulp inoculated with Trichoderma viride was supplemented to PH at rates of 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 g/100 g air dry of PH and mixed well before aerobic incubation for 21 days. Organic matter (OM) content of PH declined with increased levels of fermented sugar beet pulp inoculums, while crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), and ash increased. Fiber contents were decreased with both treatments of fermented sugar beet pulp and urea. Total N of PH increased with urea treatment, which reduced the true protein N to total protein N ratio. In sacco degradabilities of dry matter (DM), OM, and CP with urea treatment increased compared with fungal treatment. The DM intake of peanut hulls treated with fungus (PHF) was higher (P < 0.05) than with peanut hulls treated with urea (PHU). Digestibility of OM, CP, neutral detergent fiber, and non-fiber carbohydrate by native breed Ossimi sheep with PH were higher (P < 0.05) than with PH or urea treated PH. The intakes, losses, and balance of N increased (P < 0.01) with PHF versus PH feeding. Feeding PHF increased (P < 0.01) ruminal concentrations of NH3-N, acetic acid, butyric acid, and the acetic to propionic acid ratio. Bacterial and protozoal counts increased (P < 0.05) with feeding PHF or PHU versus PH. Overall, this fungal treatment of peanut hulls created a higher nutritive value feed for ruminants.

Keywords

Peanut hulls Fungi Urea Digestibility 

Abbreviations

ADF

Acid detergent fiber

CP

Crude protein

DM

Dry matter

EE

Ether extract

NDF

Neutral detergent fiber

OM

Organic matter

PH

Peanut hulls

PHF

Peanut hulls treated with fungus

PHU

Peanut hulls treated with urea

References

  1. Abdel-Azim, S.N., Ahmed, M.A., Abo-Donia, F. and Soliman, H., 2011. Evaluation of fungal treatment of some agricultural residues. Egyptian Journal of Sheep and Goat Sciences, 6, 1–13.Google Scholar
  2. Abo-Donia, F.M, Sobhy, H., El-Gamal, K.M. and Mikhail, W.Z.A., 2005. Evaluation of applying the solid-state fermentation technique to upgrade chemical and sugar cane bagasse. Egyptian Journal of Nutrition and Feeds, 8, 603–617.Google Scholar
  3. Akinfemi, A. Adu, O.A. and Doherty, F. 2010. Conversion of sorghum stover into animal feed with white-rot-fungi. Pleurotus oestreatus and Pleurotus pulmonarius. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9, 1706–1712.Google Scholar
  4. AOAC, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 1997. Official Methods of Analysis, 16th ed. AOAC, Arlington, VA, USA.Google Scholar
  5. Barton, F.E., Amos, H.E., Albrecht, W.J. and Burdick, D., 1974. Treating peanut hulls to improve digestibility for ruminants. Journal of Animal Science, 38, 860–864.Google Scholar
  6. Collins, M. 1995. Hay preservation effects on yield and quality. In: D. M. Kral, et al. (eds.) Postharvest physiology and preservation of forages. CSSA Specification Publication, 22, 67–89.Google Scholar
  7. Conway, E.J., 1978. Microdiffusion analysis and volumetric error. 4th Ed. The McMillan Co., New York, NY, USA.Google Scholar
  8. Dckkcr, R.F.H., Richards, G.N., 1973. Effect of delignification on the in vitro rumen digestion of polysaccharides of Bagasse. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 24, 375–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dehority, B.A., 1984. Evaluation of subsampling and fixation procedures used for counting rumen protozoa. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 48, 182–185.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Eadie, J.M., Hobson, P.N., Mann, S.O., 1967. A note on some comparisons between the rumen content of barley fed steers and that of young calves also fed on high concentrate rations. Animal production, 9, 247–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Egyptian ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation, 2006. Study of the indicators agricultural statistics. Vol. 2: Summer and Nile Crops 2005. Central administration for agricultural economy.Google Scholar
  12. El-Menniawy, A.Y.M., 2008. Studies on biological treatments in animal nutrion. Ph.D. Thesis. Fac. Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Nasser city, Egypt.Google Scholar
  13. El-Sayed, H.M., El-Ashry, M.A., Metwally, H.M., Fadel, M. and Khorshed, M.M., 2002. Effect of chemical and biological treatments of some crop-residues on their nutritive value: 3-Digestion coefficient, rumen and blood serum parameters of Goats. Egyptian Journal of Nutrition and Feeds, 1, 55–66.Google Scholar
  14. Erwin, E.S., Marco, G.T. and Emery, E.M., 1961. Volatile fatty acid analysis of blood and rumen fluid by gas chromatography. Journal of Dairy Science, 44, 1768–1771.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fan, L.T., Lee, Y.H. and Gharpuray, M.M., 1982. The nature of lignocellulosics and their pre-treatment for enzymic hydrolysis. Advanced Biochemical Engineering, 23, 157–187.Google Scholar
  16. France, J., Dijkstra, J., Dhanoa, M.S., Lopez, S. and Bannink, A., 2000. Estimating the extent of degradation of ruminant feeds from a description of their gas production profiles observed in vitro: derivation of models and other mathematical considerations. British Journal of Nutrition, 83, 143–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Frank Dean, J., 2002. Effects of differences in dietary protein and varying the interval from collection of bovine embryos to freezing on embryo quality and viability. MSc. Thesis. Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Virginia City, USA.Google Scholar
  18. Goto, M., Yokoe, Y., Takabe, K. Nisikawa, S. and Morita, O., 1993. Effects of gaseous ammonia on chemical and structural features of cell walls in spring barley straw. Animal Feed Science Technology, 40, 207–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ibrahim, M.Y., 2002. Nutritional studies on biological treatment of agriculture by-products on ruminants. M. Sci. Thesis, Fac. of Agric., Zagazig University, Zagazig city, Egypt.Google Scholar
  20. Jain, P. and Wilkins, E.S., 1987. Cellulase immobilized on modified nylon for saccharification of cellulose. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 30, 1057–1062.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Khaled, M.E., 2009. Improving roughages feeding values by using of fungal treatment in North Africa. MSC. Thesis. Institute of African Research and Studies, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.Google Scholar
  22. Kiangi, E.M.I., 1981. Ammonia treatment of low quality roughages to improve their nutritive value. In: Kategile J A, Said A N and Sundstol F (eds), Utilization of low quality roughages in Africa. Proc. of a workshop held at Arusha, Tanzania, 18–22 January. AUN Agricultural Development Report 1. AUN (Agricultural University of Norway), Aas, Norway. pp. 49–54.Google Scholar
  23. Makkar, H.P.S., Aregheore, E.M. and Becker, K., 1999. Effect of saponins on the recovery of ammonia during urea-ammunition of wheat straw and fermentation kinetics of the treated straw. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge, 132, 313–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Martens, D.R., 1977. Dietary fiber components: Relationship to the rate and extent of ruminal digestion. Federation Proceedings, 36, 187–192.Google Scholar
  25. Mehrez, A.Z., Abo-Donia, F.M., Maklad, E.H. and Abdel-Khabir, A. 2008. Evaluation of sugar beet pulp treated with Trichoderma verdi and Saccharomyces cervicia. Egyptian Journal of Sheep and Goat Sciences, 3(1), 33–50.Google Scholar
  26. Menke, K.H., Steingass, H. 1988. Estimation of the energetic feed value obtained from chemical analyses and gas production using rumen fluid. Animal Research Development, 28, 7–55.Google Scholar
  27. Oji, U.I., Etim, H.E. and Okoye, F.C., 2007. Effects of urea and aqueous ammonia treatment on the composition and nutritive value of maize residues. Small Ruminant Research, 69, 232–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ørskov, E.R. and McDonald, I., 1979. The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighted according to rate of passage. Journal Agricultural Sciences, 92, 499–503.Google Scholar
  29. Pandey, A, Soccol, C.R. and Mitchell, D., 2000. New developments in solid state fermentation, Process Biochemistry 35, 1153–1169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rahman, S.R. and Mahmood, S., 2008. Production and partial characterization of extracellular ∞-Amylase by Trichoderma viride. Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science, 25, 99–103.Google Scholar
  31. Raimbault, M., 1998. General and microbiological aspects of solid substrate fermentation. Electron Journal of Biotechnology, 1(3), 1–15.Google Scholar
  32. Rane, S., Puniya, A.K. and Singh, K., 2004. Effect of fungi and N-fixing bacteria on the solid state fermentation of rice straw. Indian Journal of Animal Science, 74, 211–215.Google Scholar
  33. Sarnklong, C., Cone, J.W., Pellikaan, W. and Hendriks, W.H., 2010. Utilization of rice straw and different treatments to improve its feed value for ruminants: A review. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 23, 680–692.Google Scholar
  34. SAS, 2004. SAS Users Guide: Statistics. SAS Institute. Inc. Cary, NC, USA.Google Scholar
  35. Shakweer, I.M.E., 2003. Effect of biological treatments of rice straw and sugar cane bagasse on their digestibility, nutritive value, ruminal activity and some blood parameters in rams. Egyptian Journal of Nutrition and Feeds, 6, 925.Google Scholar
  36. Singh, S., Kushwaha, B.P., Nag, S.K., Mishra, A.K., Bhattacharya, S., Gupta, P.K. and Singh, A., 2011. In vitro methane emission from Indian dry roughages in relation to chemical composition. Current Science, 101, 1–0.Google Scholar
  37. Sundstol F., Coxworth, E., Mowat, D.N., 1978. Improving the nutritive value of straw and other low quality roughages by treatment with ammonia. World Animal Review 26, 13–21.Google Scholar
  38. Thomas J.K., Windham, W.R, Woodward, J.H., Benner, R., 1986. Chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of thermochemically treated peanut hulls. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 37, 632–636.Google Scholar
  39. Van Soest, P.J., Robertson, J.B. and Lewis, B.A., 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74, 3583–3597.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wanapat, M., Polyorach, S., Boonnop, K., Mapato, C. and Cherdthong, A., 2009. Effects of treating rice straw with urea or urea and calcium hydroxide upon intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and milk yield of dairy cows. Livestock Science, 125, 238–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Warner, E., 1964. Production of volatile fatty acids in the rumen. Methods of measurements. Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews, 34, 339–352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Wolin, M.J., 1960. A theoretical rumen fermentation balance. Journal of Dairy Science, 43, 1452–1459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fawzy M. Abo-Donia
    • 1
  • Safa N. Abdel-Azim
    • 1
  • Mona M. Y. Elghandour
    • 2
  • Abdelfattah Z. M. Salem
    • 2
    • 4
  • Germán Buendía
    • 3
  • N. A. M. Soliman
    • 1
  1. 1.Animal Production Research InstituteMinistry of AgricultureGizaEgypt
  2. 2.Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y ZootecniaUniversidad Autónoma del Estado de MéxicoEstado de MéxicoMéxico
  3. 3.Centro Nacional de Investigación Disciplinaria en Fisiología y Mejoramiento AnimalINIFAPAjuchitlánMéxico
  4. 4.Faculty of Agriculture (El-Shatby)Alexandria UniversityAlexandriaEgypt

Personalised recommendations