Advertisement

Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 45, Issue 6, pp 1383–1389 | Cite as

Prevalence and risk factors for brucellosis in goats in areas of Mexico with and without brucellosis control campaign

  • David Oseguera Montiel
  • Klaas Frankena
  • Henk Udo
  • Nícola Maria Keilbach Baer
  • Akke van der Zijpp
Regular Articles

Abstract

Brucellosis is a major constraint for small-scale goat farming systems in Mexico. This study estimated the prevalence of testing positive to brucellosis and identified and quantified risk factors in goats from small-scale farms of Michoacán that had participated in a brucellosis campaign (i.e. vaccination, serological testing, culling and awareness) and of Jalisco that had negligible brucellosis campaign participation. A cross-sectional serological survey was conducted among 1,713 goats of 83 flocks. The prevalence of testing positive to brucellosis was higher (38 %) in Jalisco than in Michoacán (11 %). Logistic regression analysis indicated that goats from Michoacán had lower odds to test positive for brucellosis (odds ratio (OR) = 0.32, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.21–0.48) compared to goats from Jalisco. Goats in zero-grazing systems had lower odds than goats in grazing systems (OR = 0.22, 95 % CI 0.09–0.57). When goats were kept in pens with low density (0.002 to 0.22 goat/m2), odds was lower (OR = 0.44, 95 % CI 0.28–0.67) compared to goats kept in pens with higher density (0.23 to 1 goat/m2). Odds was higher for testing positive when farmers bought goats from goat traders (OR = 1.82, 95 % CI 1.15–2.87) compared to farmers who did not. If scavenger poultry had access to goat pens, the odds was half (OR = 0.52, 95 % CI 0.33–0.83) of those where poultry had no access. Regular disinfection of the pen reduced the odds (OR = 0.66, 95 % CI 0.44–0.99) compared to where disinfection was not regular. The brucellosis control campaign was effective in reducing brucellosis seropositivity.

Keywords

Brucellosis Control Mexico Small-scale goat farming Vaccination 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The National Council for Science and Technology in Mexico (CONACYT) and Foundation Alfa and Omega in The Netherlands sponsored DOM and generously funded this research. The Microbiology Department at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine from UNAM allowed us to do the RBT test at their facilities. Finally, we thank the goat farmers for taking part in this study, their families for their hospitality and the anonymous reviewers for their critical and constructive evaluation.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Acosta-González, R., Infante, F., and Flores-Gutiérrez, G., 2009. Epidemiological patterns of caprine brucellosis in an unvaccinated area, Mexico. Revue de Médecine Vétérinaire, 160, 145--148.Google Scholar
  2. Al-Majali, A.M., 2005. Seroepidemiology of caprine brucellosis in Jordan. Small Ruminant Research, 58, 3--18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alton, G., 1987. Control of Brucella melitensis infection in sheep and goats—a review. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 19, 65--74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Biernacki, P., and Waldorf, D., 1981. Snowball sampling. Sociological Methods and Research, 10, 141--163.Google Scholar
  5. Blasco, J.M. 2010. Control and eradication strategies for B. melitensis infection in sheep and goats, Prilozi, 31, 145--65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Carey, V.J., 2011. gee: Generalized Estimation Equation solver, URL http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=gee, r package version 4.13-17.
  7. DGE, 2008. Anuarios de morbilidad: Dirección general de epidemiología, http://www.dgepi.salud.gob.mx/.
  8. Díaz-Aparicio, E.C., Marin, B., Alonso-Urmeneta, V., Aragón, S., Pérez-Ortiz, M., Pardo, J.M., Blasco, J., Díaz, R., and Moriyón, I., 1994. Evaluation of serological tests for diagnosis of Brucella melitensis infection of goats. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 32, 1159--1165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Doganay, M., and Aygen, B., 2003. Human brucellosis: an overview. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 7, 173--182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Enright, F.M., 1990. The pathogenesis and pathobiology of Brucella infection in domestic animals. In: K. Nielsen and J.R. Duncan (eds), Animal Brucellosis (CRC Press, Boca Ratón, Florida, USA; 1990), 301--320.Google Scholar
  11. Franco, M.P., Mulder, M., Gilman, R.H., and Smits, H.L., 2007 Human brucellosis. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 7, 775--786.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Garnica, G., Otero, R., Morfín, S., Gómez, H., Díaz, E., and Noriega, E., 2010. Uveítis anterior como manifestación de brucelosis: Reporte de un caso y revisión de literatura. Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología, 30, 66--69.Google Scholar
  13. Gómez y González, A., Rodríguez, J., and Rivera, J., 2009. Manual de producción caprina. (Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí).Google Scholar
  14. Harrell, F.E.J., 2009. Design: Design package, R package version 2.3-0. URL http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=Design.
  15. Harrell, F.E.J., and with contributions from many other users, 2009. Hmisc: Harrell Miscellaneous, R package version 3.7-0. URL http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=Hmisc.
  16. Hernández J.E., Franco F.J., Villarreal O.A., Camacho J.C., and Pedraza R.M., 2011. Caracterización socioeconómica y productiva de unidades caprinas familiares en la Mixteca Poblana. Archivos de Zootecnia, 60, 175--182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hosmer, D.W., Hosmer, T., Lemeshow, S., le Cessie, S., and Lemeshow, S., 1997. A comparison of goodness-of-fit tests for the logistic regression model. Statistics in Medicine, 16, 965--980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. INEGI, 2007. VIII censo agrícola, ganadero y forestal. URL http://www.inegi.org.mx/.
  19. Jones, L.M. Garcia-Carrillo, C., and Alton, G.G., 1973. Brucella melitensis Rev 1 and Brucella abortus 45–20 vaccines in goats: serologic tests. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 34, 199--202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Junaidu, A.U., Salihu, M.D., Ahmed, F., Ambursa, M.A., and Gulumbe, M.L., 2006. Brucellosis in local chickens in North Western Nigeria. International Journal of Poultry Science, 5, 547--549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Merck, 1986. The Merck Veterinary Manual Edition 6. (Merck & Co., NJ, USA).Google Scholar
  22. Minas, A., Minas, M., Stournara, A., and Tselepidis, S., 2004. The ‘effects’ of Rev-1 vaccination of sheep and goats on human brucellosis in Greece. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 64, 41--47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Nielsen, K., and Yu, W.L., 2010. Serological diagnosis of brucellosis. Prilozi, 31, 65--–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Ortega-Sánchez, J., Romero, A., Luján, C., and Martínez, R., 2009. Seroprevalencia de brucelosis caprina en el municipio de Tlahualilo, Durango, México. Revista Electrónica de Veterinaria, 10.Google Scholar
  25. R Development Core Team, 2010. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R foundation for statistical computing, Vienna, Austria, URL http://www.R-project.org/.
  26. Rebollar, S.J., Hernández Martínez, J.A., García Salazar, R., García-Mata, G., Torres Hernández, J.L., Bórquez Gastelum, and Mejía Hernández, P., 2007. Canales y Márgenes De Comercialización De Caprinos En Tejupilco y Amatepec, Estado De México. Agrociencia 41, 363--370.Google Scholar
  27. Roth, F., Zinsstag, J., Orkhon, D., Chimed-Ochir, G., Hutton, G., Cosivi, O., Carrin, G., and Otte, J., 2003. Human health benefits from livestock vaccination for brucellosis: Case Study. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 81, 867--876.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. SAGARPA, 1996. Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-041-ZOO-1995, Campaña nacional contra la brucelosis en los animales. SAGARPA: Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, y Desarrollo Rural, Mexico.Google Scholar
  29. Solorio-Rivera, J., Segura-Correa, J., and Sánchez-Gil, L., 2007. Seroprevalence of and risk factors for brucellosis of goats in herds of Michoacán, Mexico. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 82, 282--290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Thrusfield, M., Ortega, C., De Blas, I., Noordhuizen, J., and Frankena, K., 2001. WIN EPISCOPE 2.0: improved epidemiological software for veterinary medicine. The Veterinary Record, 148, 567--572.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Vargas López, S., 2003. Análisis y desarrollo del sistema de producción agrosilvopastoril caprino para carne en condiciones de subsistencia de Puebla, México, (unpublished PhD thesis, Universidad de Córdoba).Google Scholar
  32. Ward, D., Jackson, R., Karomatullo, H., Khakimov, T., Kurbonov, K., Amirbekov, M., Stack, J., El-Idrissi, A. and Heuer, C., 2012. Brucellosis control in Tajikistan using Rev 1 vaccine: change in seroprevalence in small ruminants from 2004 to 2009. The Veterinary Record, 170, 100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wickham, H., 2009. ggplot2: elegant graphics for data analysis. (Springer, New York).Google Scholar
  34. Zinsstag, J., Roth, F., Orkhon, D., Chimed-Ochir, G., Nansalmaa, M., Kolar, J., and Vounatsou P., 2005. A model of animal–human brucellosis transmission in Mongolia. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 69, 77--95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Oseguera Montiel
    • 1
    • 2
  • Klaas Frankena
    • 1
  • Henk Udo
    • 2
  • Nícola Maria Keilbach Baer
    • 3
  • Akke van der Zijpp
    • 2
  1. 1.Quantitative Veterinary Epidemiology GroupWageningen UniversityWageningenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Animal Production Systems GroupWageningen UniversityWageningenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Centro de Estudios RuralesColegio de MichoacánZamoraMéxico

Personalised recommendations