Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 45, Issue 6, pp 1341–1347 | Cite as

Efficacy of Strychnos spinosa (Lam.) and Solanum incanum L. aqueous fruit extracts against cattle ticks

  • James Madzimure
  • Emmanuel T. Nyahangare
  • Humphrey Hamudikuwanda
  • Thokozani Hove
  • Steve R. Belmain
  • Philip C. Stevenson
  • Brighton M. Mvumi
Regular Articles


The efficacy of Solanum incanum and Strychnos spinosa aqueous fruit extracts was evaluated against cattle ticks in on-station experiments and laboratory tick bioassays. In the on-station experiment using cattle, fruit extracts were applied at three concentrations 5, 10, and 20 % (w/v) and compared with a commercial acaricide, Tickbuster® (amitraz) spray (positive control) and no treatment (negative control). The treatments were applied at weekly intervals for 6 weeks as surface sprays on 32 Mashona cattle in a completely randomized design experiment. Ticks on individual cattle were identified, counted, and recorded daily. Peripheral blood samples were collected for parasite screening. In the laboratory, tick bioassays were conducted at four concentrations, 5, 10, 20, and 40 % (w/v) fruit extracts compared to Tickbuster® (amitraz) spray (positive control) and distilled water (negative control). The extracts were incubated with Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus tick larvae and mortalities for each treatment level recorded after 24 and 48 h. The 5 % Solanum incanum treatment had higher efficacy ratio (P < 0.05) than the other fruit extract concentrations of the same plant species. Efficacy ratio was higher (P < 0.05) in the 5 % S. spinosa-treated cattle than in the untreated control but lower (P < 0.05) than that for the amitraz treatment. The bioassays indicated that there was a high efficacy ratio for the lowest fruit extract concentrations when ticks were exposed to acaricidal treatments for 48 h compared to 24 h. Overall, the results indicate that Solanum incanum and Strychnos spinosa individually have some acaricidal effect.


Strychnos spinosa Solanum incanum Tick control Aqueous fruit extracts Pesticidal plants Acaricidal efficacy 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • James Madzimure
    • 1
    • 2
  • Emmanuel T. Nyahangare
    • 2
  • Humphrey Hamudikuwanda
    • 2
  • Thokozani Hove
    • 3
  • Steve R. Belmain
    • 4
  • Philip C. Stevenson
    • 4
    • 5
  • Brighton M. Mvumi
    • 6
  1. 1.Discipline of Animal and Poultry ScienceUniversity of KwaZulu-NatalScottsvilleSouth Africa
  2. 2.Department of Animal Science, Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of ZimbabweHarareZimbabwe
  3. 3.Department of Paraclinical Veterinary Studies, Faculty of Veterinary ScienceUniversity of ZimbabweHarareZimbabwe
  4. 4.Natural Resources InstituteUniversity of GreenwichChathamUK
  5. 5.Royal Botanic GardensRichmondUK
  6. 6.Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of ZimbabweHarareZimbabwe

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