Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 45, Issue 5, pp 1223–1230 | Cite as

Prevalence and significant geospatial clusters of bovine tuberculosis infection at livestock–wildlife interface ecosystem in Eastern Tanzania

  • Richard Simon Mwakapuja
  • Zachariah Ephraim Makondo
  • Joseph Malakalinga
  • Ward Bryssinckx
  • Robinson Hammerthon Mdegela
  • Irmgard Moser
  • Rudovick Reuben Kazwala
  • Manfred Tanner
Regular Articles


Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is an important neglected zoonosis that affects livestock, wildlife and human. A study to determine prevalence and geospatial clusters for BTB was conducted from June 2010 to March 2012 at livestock–wildlife interface areas (LWIA). A total of 1,288 cattle located in vicinity of Mikumi-Selous ecosystem Tanzania were tested. Single Intradermal Comparative Tuberculin Test and spatial scan statistic analysis were applied to establish the status of the disease and identify significant spatial BTB clusters. Overall individual prevalence was 3.7 % (n = 1,288) (95 % CI = 2.8–4.9) and 7.8 % (95 % CI = 6.4–9.4) with cut-off of >4 and >2 mm, respectively. Villages with at least one reactor were 55.8 % (n = 43). Reactivity was significantly higher in Mvomero and Kilosa districts compared with Kilombero and Ulanga districts (χ 2 = 15.9; P < 0.001). Significant spatial BTB clusters were revealed at 11 villages. BTB clustering was significant in Kilosa and Mvomero districts compared with Kilombero and Ulanga districts. There was overlap and aggregation of BTB clusters covering south and south-east of Kilosa district bordering Mikumi National Park (MNP) and Mvomero. Generally, clustering occurred around major rivers. The current study provides useful information on the dynamics and epidemiological status of BTB around the wildlife–livestock–human interface, it reveals that the wildlife are at risk of BTB from infected livestock. The study revealed hotspots for BTB that can be applied to guide implementation of participatory intervention at LWIA and control strategies in marginalised pastoralist communities. This study calls for similar studies in other Tanzania’s LWIA for efficient intervention of BTB countrywide.


Bovine tuberculosis Pastoralist Tuberculin test Spatial cluster 



We are grateful to German Research Foundation through German African Tuberculosis Project for financial support of this study. We acknowledge the technical and laboratory facilities offered by Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA) and ICONZ project. Furthermore, we acknowledge for cooperation and support received from animal herders and farmers, and District Council Authorities through the Department of Agriculture and Livestock Development.

Conflict of interest

None of the authors (Richards S. Mwakapuja, Zachariah E. Makondo, Joseph Malakalinga, Ward Bryssinckx, Robinson H. Mdegela, Irmgard Moser, Rudovick R. Kazwala and Manfred Tanner) has a financial or personal relationship with other people or organisations that could inappropriately influence or bias the paper entitled “Prevalence and significant geospatial clusters of bovine tuberculosis infection at livestock–wildlife interface ecosystem in the Eastern Tanzania”.

Ethical standards

The experiments comply with the current laws of United Republic of Tanzania.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard Simon Mwakapuja
    • 1
  • Zachariah Ephraim Makondo
    • 1
  • Joseph Malakalinga
    • 1
  • Ward Bryssinckx
    • 2
  • Robinson Hammerthon Mdegela
    • 1
  • Irmgard Moser
    • 4
  • Rudovick Reuben Kazwala
    • 1
  • Manfred Tanner
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Veterinary Medicine and Public HealthSokoine University of AgricultureMorogoroTanzania
  2. 2.Avia-GISZoerselBelgium
  3. 3.Friedrich Loeffler InstitutGreifswald-Isle RiemsGermany
  4. 4.Friedrich Loeffler Institut, Institute of Molecular PathogenesisJenaGermany

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