The association of ruminal pH and some metabolic parameters with conception rate at first artificial insemination in Thai dairy cows
- 291 Downloads
The objective of this study was to determine the association of metabolic parameters and cow associated factors with the conception rate at first insemination (FCR) in Thai dairy cows. The investigation was performed with 529 lactations from 32 smallholder dairy farms. At 3–6 weeks after parturition, blood samples and ruminal fluid were collected. Body condition scores (BCS) of cows were scored 1 week before expected calving date and at blood sampling date. Ruminal pH was measured at 2–4 h after morning feeding in ruminal fluid collected by ruminocentesis. Serum beta-hydroxybutyrate and serum urea nitrogen were measured by kinetic enzyme method. Cows with first insemination (AI) between 41 and 114 days postpartum were identified after pregnancy diagnosis for FCR. Breed, parity, interval from calving to first AI, BCS before calving, BCS after calving, loss in BCS after calving, SBHB, SUN, ruminal pH, and postpartum problems were selected as independent variables for a model with FCR as a dependent variable. A multivariable logistic regression model was used with farm as a random effect. Overall FCR was 27.2 %. The FCR depended on interval from calving to first AI, BCS before calving, and ruminal pH. The FCR between 69 and 91 days postpartum was significantly highest (45 %). Before calving, a cow with high BCS (≥3.5) had significantly greater FCR than a cow with low BCS (≤3.25; P < 0.01). An increased ruminal pH raised significantly FCR (OR = 2.53; P = 0.03).
KeywordsRuminal pH First insemination Conception Reproduction
The authors thank Thailand Research Fund (TRF) for providing grant for this project and the farmers who cooperated in this study for their support.
Conflict of interest
None of the authors have any conflict of interest to declare.
- Bahonar, A. R., Azizzadeh, M., Stevenson, M. A., Vojgani, M. and Mahmoudi, M., 2009. Factors affecting days open in Holstein dairy cattle in Khorasan Razavi province, Iran; a cox proportional hazard model. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 8, 747–754.Google Scholar
- Brown, H. and Prescott, R., 1999. Applied mixed models in medicine. John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., Chichester, UK.Google Scholar
- Jackson, R. A., Wills, J. R., Kendall, N. R., Green, M. J., Murray, R. D. and Dobson, H., 2012. Energy metabolites in pre- and postpartum dairy cattle as predictors of reproductive disorders. Veterinary Record, 168.Google Scholar
- Konig, S., Chongkasikit, N. and Langholz, H. J., 2005. Estimation of variance components for production and fertility traits in Northern Thai dairy cattle to define optimal breeding strategies. Archiv Tierzucht-Archives Animal Breeding, 48, 233–246.Google Scholar
- Loeffler, S. H., de Vries, M. J., Schukken, Y. H., de Zeeuw, A. C., Dijkhuizen, A. A., de Graaf, F. M. and Brand, A., 1999. Use of AI technician scores for body condition, uterine tone and uterine discharge in a model with disease and milk production parameters to predict pregnancy risk at first AI in holstein dairy cows. Theriogenology, 51, 1267–1284.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rukkwamsuk, T., 2011. Effect of nutrition on reproductive performance of postparturient dairy cows in the tropics: A review. Thai Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 41, 103–107.Google Scholar
- Schlamberger, G., Wiedemann, S., Viturro, E., Meyer, H. H. D. and Kaske, M., 2010. Effects of continuous milking during the dry period or once daily milking in the first 4 weeks of lactation on metabolism and productivity of dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 93, 2471–2485.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Soto, P., Natzke, R. P. and Hansen, P. J., 2003. Identification of possible mediators of embryonic mortality caused by mastitis: Actions of lipopolysaccharide, prostaglandin F-2 alpha and the nitric oxide generator, sodium nitroprusside dihydrate, on oocyte maturation and embryonic development in cattle. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, 50, 263–272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zebeli, Q., Dijkstra, J., Tafaj, M., Steingass, H., Ametaj, B. N. and Drochner, W., 2008. Modeling the adequacy of dietary fiber in dairy cows based on the responses of ruminal pH and milk fat production to composition of the diet. Journal of Dairy Science, 91, 2046–2066.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar