The objective of present study was to evaluate the growth potential of Sahiwal calves for veal production on whole milk or whole milk and milk replacer combined in a ratio of 50:50 (MMR). For this purpose, 48 Sahiwal calves (both male and female) were assigned to four dietary treatments having 12 animals/treatment. Calves in the treatments A and B were offered whole milk at 15 or 20 % of their body weight (BW), respectively, up to day 84 adjusted on weekly basis. The calves in treatments C and D received the same amount of milk as in treatments A and B until day 21, respectively, after which 50 % of the milk offered was replaced with a blend of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) flour and vegetable (corn) oil mixed in water (MR) until day 84. The constituted MR had 3.1, 2.8, and 14.3 %, CP, EE, and DM, respectively. The growth and intake data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis, with MIXED Procedures of SAS in a 2 × 2 factorial design. The two factors were feeding level and feeding source. Calves offered whole milk grew faster (P < 0.05) and had greater weaning weights (P < 0.05) than those offered MMR (606.4 ± 18.1 vs 331.3 ± 18.1 g/day and 70.4 ± 1.5 vs 47.8 ± 1.5 kg, respectively). Greatest daily BW gain (656 ± 26 g/day) and weaning weight (74.6 ± 2.1 kg) were observed in calves given treatment B while the lowest production cost/kg of BW gain (≈US$3.6 ± 0.2) was observed in calves given treatment A. The daily BW gain of calves fed milk ad libitum was 716 ± 40 and 836 ± 40 g/day, during 5–8 and 9–12 weeks, respectively. The number of days calves exhibited scours was higher in calves offered MMR than those offered whole milk. Replacement of 50 % milk with a blend of chickpea flour and vegetable oil, as an alternative to milk replacer, did not support growth equivalent to whole milk and was not effective in reducing feeding cost during the weaning period. Sahiwal calves may have promise for being raised for veal production under tropical environments.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Ahmad, M. and Rehman, S., 1989. Effect of feeding whole milk/skim milk on the growth of male buffalo calves. Tenth Annual Report (1988–89). Livestock Production Research Institute, Bahadurnagar, Okara, Pakistan, pp, 115–118
Ahmad, S., Yaqoob, M., Hashmi, N., Zaman, M.A. and Amjad, M.S., 2009. Farmers’ attitude towards interventions regarding buffalo calf health care and management practices under field conditions. Pakistan Veterinary Journal, 29, 125–128
Appleby, M.C., Weary, D.M. and Chua, D., 2001. Performance and feeding behaviour of calves on ad libitum milk from artificial teats. Applied Animal Behavior Science, 74, 191–201
Berends, H., Van Reenen, C.G., Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N., and Gerrits, W.J.J., 2012. Effects of early rumen development and solid feed composition on growth performance and abomasal health in veal calves. Journal of Dairy Science. 95, 3190–3199
Berman, A., 2011. Invited review: Are adaptations present to support dairy cattle productivity in warm climates? Journal of Dairy Science, 94, 2147–2158
Bhatti, S.A., Ahmad, M.F., McGill, D, Sarwar, M., Afzal, M., Ullah, E., Khan, M.A., Khan, M.S., Bush, R., Wynn, P.C. and Warriach, H.M., 2012. Effect of diet on pre-weaning performance of Sahiwal calves. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 44, 819–826
Bhatti, S.A., Khan, M.S., Sarwar, M. and Ehsanullah, 2009. Performance of buffalo and cow calves during pre-weaning period under same managemental conditions at the University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series 9, 623–628
Borderas, T.F., de Passillé, A.M.B. and Rushen, J., 2009. Feeding behavior of calves fed small or large amounts of milk. Journal of Dairy Science, 92, 2843–2852
de Passillé, A.M., Borderas, T.F. and Rushen, J., 2011. Weaning age of calves fed a high milk allowance by automated feeders: Effects on feed, water, and energy intake, behavioral signs of hunger, and weight gains. Journal of Dairy Science, 94, 1404–1408
Food and Agriculture Organization, 2007. ‘The state of the world’s animal genetic resources for food and agriculture’. (eds) Rischkowsky, B., Pilling, D., Rome, Italy
Ghorbani, G.R., Kowsa, R., Alikhani, M. and Nikkhah, A., 2007. Soymilk as a novel milk replacer to stimulate early calf starter intake and reduce weaning age and costs. Journal of Dairy Science, 90, 5692–5697.
Jasper, J. and Weary, D.M., 2002. Effects of ad libitum milk intake on dairy calves. Journal of Dairy Science, 85, 3054–3058.
Kadzere, C.T., Murphy, M.R., Silanikove, N., Maltz, E., 2002. Heat stress in lactating dairy cows: a review. Livestock Production Science, 77, 59–91.
Kertz, A.F. and Chester-Jones, H., 2004. Invited Review: Guidelines for measuring and reporting calf and heifer experimental data. Journal of Dairy Science, 87, 3577–3580
Khan, M.A., Lee, H.J., Lee, W.S., Kim, H.S., Kim, S.B., Ki, K.S., Ha, J.K., Lee, H.G. and Choi, Y.J., 2007. Pre and post weaning performance of Holstein female calves fed milk through step down and conventional method. Journal of Dairy Science, 90, 876–885
Khan, M.A., Weary, D.M. and von Keyserlingk, M.A.G., 2011. Invited review: Effects of milk ration on solid feed intake, weaning, and performance in dairy heifers. Journal of Dairy Science, 94, 1071–1081
Lee, H.J., Khan, M.A., Lee, W.S., Yang, S.H., Kim, S.B., Ki, K.S., Kim, H.S., Ha, J.K. and Choi, Y.J., 2009. Influence of equalizing the gross composition of milk replacer to that of whole milk on the performance of Holstein calves. Journal of Animal Science, 87, 1129–1137
Littell, R.C., Henry, P.R. and Ammerman, C.B., 1998. Statistical analysis of repeated measures data using SAS procedures, Journal of Animal Science, 76, 1216–1231
Montagne, L., Crevieu-Gabriel, I., Toullec, R. and Lalles, J.P., 2003. Influence of dietary protein level and source on the course of protein digestion along the small intestine of the veal calf. Journal of Dairy Science, 86, 934–943
NRC, 2001. Nutrients Requirements of Dairy Cattle (7th Edn), National Academy Press Washington, DC, USA
Razzaque, M.A., Abbas, S., Al-Mutawa, T. and Bedair, M., 2009. Performance of pre-weaned female calves confined in housing and open environment hutches in Kuwait. Pakistan Veterinary Journal, 29, 1–4
Sans, P. and de Fontguyon, G., 2009. Veal calf industry economics. Revue de Médecine Vétérinaire, 160 (8–9). pp. 420–424. ISSN 0035–1555
SAS, 2002. ‘The SAS/STAT User’s Guide’. Version 9.2, SAS Inst. Inc: Cary, NC, USA
Stull, C.L., and McDonough, S.P., 1994, Multidisciplinary approach to evaluating welfare of veal calves in Commercial facilities. Journal of Animal Science, 72, 2518–2524
Sweeney, B.C., Rushen, J., Weary, D.M. and de Passille, A.M., 2010. Duration of weaning, starter intake and weight gain of dairy calves fed large amounts of milk. Journal of Dairy Science, 93, 148–152
The authors greatly acknowledge the cooperation and support of the Livestock and Dairy Development Department, Punjab for providing calves and research facilities for conducting this study at their experiment station. Thanks to Professor Janice Bowman, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA for correcting language of this manuscript.
About this article
Cite this article
Bhatti, S.A., Nazir, K., Basra, M.J. et al. Prospects of raising Sahiwal cow calves for veal production under tropical environment. Trop Anim Health Prod 45, 923–930 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-012-0307-x
- Calf nutrition
- Sahiwal calves
- Milk replacer