Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 45, Issue 3, pp 865–871 | Cite as

Effect of replacing soybean protein with protein from ensiled stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis (Aubl.) Sw. var. guianensis) on growth performance, carcass traits and organ weights of exotic (Landrace × Yorkshire) and native (Moo Lath) Lao pigs

  • Lampheuy Kaensombath
  • Maria Neil
  • Jan Erik Lindberg
Regular Articles


The present study examined the impact of replacing crude protein (CP) from soybean with CP from ensiled stylo (ES) on growth performance, carcass traits and organ weights in Landrace × Yorkshire (LY) and Moo Lath (ML) native Lao pigs. Twenty-four castrated male pigs, 12 of each breed, were allocated to the diet treatments according to a completely randomised 3 × 2 factorial (three ES levels × two breeds) arrangement, with four pigs per diet treatment. Pigs were kept in individual pens and fed at 4 % dry matter of body weight for 98 days. The control diet was formulated with soybean meal as the main CP source, and in the other two experimental diets, CP from soybean was replaced at 25 % (ES25) and 50 % (ES50) by CP from ES. Calculated metabolisable energy intake decreased with ES50 diet, while dry matter intake (DMI) and CP intake (CPI) were the highest in ES25 diet (P < 0.001). Overall, average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were unaffected by diet treatments. Carcass weight, backfat thickness and dressing percentage were unaffected by soybean CP replacement, while the weights of lung, large intestine and stomach were higher (P < 0.001) when 25 % of soybean CP was replaced by CP from ES. LY pigs had higher (P < 0.001) DMI, CPI and ADG and poorer (P < 0.001) FCR than ML pigs. LY pigs had higher carcass weight (P < 0.001), lower backfat thickness (P < 0.001) and higher organ weight (P < 0.001) than ML pigs, except for small intestine weight, where there was no difference between the LY and ML pigs (P > 0.05). In conclusion, ES can replace up to 50 % of soybean CP in the diet of growing Lao LY and ML pigs without negative effects on performance and carcass traits.


Stylo silage Soybean meal Growing pigs Animal performance Organ weight Carcass traits 



The authors would like to thank Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, Department for Research Cooperation (SIDA-SAREC), through the regional MEKARN programme, for financial support.


  1. Affentranger, P., Gerwig, C., Seewer, G.J.F., Schwörer, D. and Künzi, N., 1996. Growth and carcass characteristics as well as meat and fat quality of three types of pigs under different feeding regimens. Livestock Production Science, 45, 187–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. AOAC, 1990. Official Methods of Analysis (15th ed). Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA.Google Scholar
  3. FAO, 2009. Statistical yearbook 2009. Agricultural production. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.Google Scholar
  4. Guodao, L., Phaikaew, C. and Stür, W.W., 1997. Status of Stylosanthes development in other countries: Stylosanthes development and utilisation in China and South-east Asia. Tropical Grasslands, 31,460-466.Google Scholar
  5. Horne, M.P., 1998. Securing the livelihoods of farmers in upland areas of Lao PDR. In: E.C. Chapman., B. Bouahom. and P.K. Hansen (eds), Proceedings of an international workshop on the upland farming systems in the Lao PDR-problems and opportunities for lisvestock, Vientiane, 1997, Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR), 156–162.Google Scholar
  6. Horne, M.P. and Stür, W.W., 1999. Developing forage technologies with smallholder farmers-how to select the best varieties to offer farmers in Southeast Asia. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR), 62, p. 80Google Scholar
  7. Huynh, T.T.T., Aarnink, A.J.A., Drucker, A. and Verstegen, M.W.A., 2007. Pig production in Cambodia, Laos, Philippines, and Vietnam: A review. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Development, 4, 69–90.Google Scholar
  8. Jiang, Y.Z., Zhu, L., Li, X.W. and Si, T., 2011. Evaluation of the Chinese indigenous pig breed Daha and crossbred Dawu for growth and carcass characteristics, organ weight, meat quality and intramuscular fatty acid and amino acid composition. Animal, 5, 1485–1492.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Keoboualapheth, C. and Mikled, C., 2003. Growth performance of indigenous pigs fed with Stylosanthes guianensis CIAT 184 as replacement for rice bran. Livestock Research for Rural Development.15, 9. Retrieved October 11, 2011, from
  10. Keonouchanh, S., Phengsavanh, P., Stür, W., Kopinski, J. S. and Leterme, P., (2008). Performance of the Lao local pig breed “moolath” fed a nutrient dense diet. In: Proceeding of the 13th AAAP congress: Animal Agriculture and the role of small holder farmers in a global economy, held in Hanoi, Vietnam 22–27 Sept 2008. pp.199.Google Scholar
  11. Khoutsavang, B., 2005. Use of fresh stylosanthes (Styosanthes guianensis CIAT 184) and cassava foliage (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) as a protein source for crossbred pigs. MSc thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.Google Scholar
  12. Len, N.T., Lindberg, J.E. and Ogle, B., 2008. Effect of dietary fiber level on the performance and carcass traits of Mong Cai, F1 crossbred (Mong Cai × Yorkshire) and Landrace × Yorkshire pigs. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 21, 245–251.Google Scholar
  13. Len, N.T., Hong, T.T.T., Ogle, B. and Lindberg, J.E., 2009. Comparison of total tract digestibility, development of visceral organs and digestive tract of Mong cai and Yorkshire × Landrace piglets fed diets with different fibre sources. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 93, 181–191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ly, N.T.H., Ngoan, L.D., Verstegen, M.W.A. and Hendriks, W.H., 2010. Ensiled and dry cassava leaves, and sweet potato vines as a protein source in diets for growing Vietnamese Large White × Mong Cai pigs. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 23, 1205–1212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ly, N.T.H., Ngoan, L.D., Verstegen, M.W.A. and Hendriks, W.H., 2011. Inclusion of ensiled cassava KM94 leaves in diets for growing pigs in Vietnam reduces growth rate but increases profitibility. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 24, 1157–1163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Minitab, 2010. Minitab reference manual. Release 16.2.1 for Windows, Minitab Inc, USA.Google Scholar
  17. NRC, 1998. Nutrient Requirements of Swine (10th ed). The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  18. Nyachoti, C.M., Lange, C.F.M.D., McBride, B.W., Leeson, S. and Schulze, H., 2000. Dietary influence on organ size and in vitro oxygen consumption by visceral organs of growing pigs. Livestock Production Science, 65, 229–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Phengsavanh, P. and Stür, W., 2006. The use and potential of supplementing village pigs with Stylosanthes guianensis in Lao PDR. In: T.R. Preston and B. Ogle (eds), Proceedings of the workshop on forages for pigs and rabbits, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, 2006, Agriculture Publishing House, 123–128, from
  20. Phengsavanh, P., Ogle, B., Stür, W., Frankow-Lindberg, B.E. and Lindberg, J.E., 2010. Feeding and performance of pigs in smallholder production systems in Northern Lao PDR. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 42, 1627–1633.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Rodriguez, L., Preston, T.R. and Peters, K., 2009. Studies on the nutritive value for pigs of New Cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium): digestibility and nitrogen balance with different levels of ensiled leaves in a basal diet of sugar cane juice. Livestock Research for Rural Development. 21, 27. Retrieved September 21, 2011, from
  22. Sauvant, D., Perez, J.M. and Tran, G., 2004. Tables of composition and nutritional value of feed materials. INRA, Paris, France & Wageningen Academic Publishers, The Netherlands. Google Scholar
  23. Scipioni, R. and Martelli, G., 2001. Consequences of the use of ensiled sugar beet-pulp in the diet of heavy pigs on performances, carcass characteristics and nitrogen balance: a review. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 90, 81–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Spackman, D.H., Stein, W.H. and Moore, S., 1958. Automatic recording apparatus for use in the chromatography of amino acids. Analytical Chemistry, 30, 1190–1206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Stür, W., and Horne P.M., 2001. Developing forage technologies with smallholder farmers-how to grow, manage and use forages. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR).Google Scholar
  26. Stür, W., Gray, D. and Bastin, G., 2002. Review of the livestock sector in the Lao People's Democratic Republic. International Livestock Research Institute, p. 57.Google Scholar
  27. Stür, W., Phengsavanh, P., Keonouchanh, S. and Kopinski, J., 2008. Forage legumes for supplementing village pigs in Lao PDR. Project annual report 2008. ACIAR, Canberra, Australia.Google Scholar
  28. Thorne, P., 2005. Pig raising in Northern Lao PDR. Working Paper No 4 Participatory Livestock Development Project (ADB PPTA No 4287-Lao). CIAT/ILRI: Vientiane, Lao People’s Democratic Republic.Google Scholar
  29. Undersander, D., Mertens, D.R. and Thiex, N., 1993. Forage analyses procedures. National Forage Testing Association, Omaha, NE 68137, USA.Google Scholar
  30. Van An, L., Hong, T.T.T., Ogle, B. and Lindberg, J.E., 2005. Utilization of ensiled sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) leaves as a protein supplement in diets for growing pigs. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 37, 77–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Van Soest, P.J., Robertson, J.B. and Lewis, B.A., 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysacchalides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74, 3583–3597.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lampheuy Kaensombath
    • 1
  • Maria Neil
    • 2
  • Jan Erik Lindberg
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of AgricultureNational University of LaosVientianeLao People’s Democratic Republic
  2. 2.Department of Animal Nutrition and ManagementSwedish University of Agricultural SciencesUppsalaSweden

Personalised recommendations