Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 44, Supplement 1, pp 1–2 | Cite as

Participatory and integrative approaches to food safety in developing country cities

  • Delia GraceEmail author
  • Erastus Kang’ethe
  • David Waltner-Toews
SI (Emerging Zoonoses)

In 2009, for the first time in recorded history, the majority of people lived in cities; one third of them in slums. Rural to urban migration and rapid, unplanned, urbanisation is especially marked in poor countries, driven by growing human populations seeking a better lifestyle. Urban populations consume more meat, milk, eggs and fish per capita than rural populations, and consumption is increasing rapidly as the so-called livestock revolution takes off. Livestock products are highly perishable and unsurprisingly much is produced in or near cities.

In developing countries, most livestock products are sold in traditional, domestic markets. These markets, which can be called “wet”, “traditional” or “informal”, have common characteristics: food escapes effective health and safety regulation; many actors do not pay tax and some are not licensed; traditional processing, products and retail practices predominate; infrastructure including water, electricity, sanitation and refrigeration is...


Urban agriculture Ecohealth One Health Zoonoses Food safety Nairobi Ibadan 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Delia Grace
    • 1
    Email author
  • Erastus Kang’ethe
    • 2
  • David Waltner-Toews
    • 3
  1. 1.International Livestock Research InstituteNairobiKenya
  2. 2.Department of Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of NairobiNairobiKenya
  3. 3.Veterinarians Without BordersVictoriaCanada

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