Advertisement

Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 45, Issue 1, pp 135–142 | Cite as

Potential for using indigenous pigs in subsistence-oriented and market-oriented small-scale farming systems of Southern Africa

  • James Madzimure
  • Michael ChimonyoEmail author
  • Kerstin K. Zander
  • Kennedy Dzama
Original Research

Abstract

Indigenous pigs in South Africa are a source of food and economic autonomy for people in rural small-scale farming systems. The objective of the study was to assess the potential of indigenous pigs for improving communal farmer's livelihoods and to inform policy-makers about the conservation of indigenous pigs. Data were collected from 186 small-scale subsistence-oriented households and 102 small-scale market-oriented households using interviews and direct observations. Ninety-three percent of subsistence-oriented and 82 % of market-oriented households kept indigenous pigs such as Windsnyer, Kolbroek and non-descript crosses with exotic pigs mainly for selling, consumption and investment. Farmers in both production systems named diseases and parasites, followed by feed shortages, inbreeding and abortions as major constraints for pig production. Diseases and parasites were more likely to be a constraint to pig production in subsistence-oriented systems, for households where the head was not staying at home and for older farmers. Market-oriented farmers ranked productive traits such as fast growth rate, good meat quality and decent litter size as most important selection criteria for pig breeding stock, while subsistence-oriented farmers ranked good meat quality first, followed by decent growth rate and by low feed costs. We conclude that there is high potential for using indigenous pigs in subsistence-oriented production systems and for crossbreeding of indigenous pigs with imported breeds in market-oriented systems.

Keywords

Pig genetic resources Indigenous pigs Rural development Selection criteria 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to the National Research Foundation and Govan Mbeki Research and Development Centre at the University of Fort Hare for funding this research.

References

  1. Ajala, M.K., Adesehinwa, A.O.K. and Mohammed, A.K., 2007. Characteristics of smallholder pig production in Southern Kaduna area of Kaduna State, Nigeria, American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Science, 2 (2), 182–188.Google Scholar
  2. Chiduwa, G., Chimonyo, M., Halimani, T.E., Chisambara, S.R. and Dzama, K., 2008. Herd dynamics and contribution of indigenous pigs to the livelihoods of rural farmers in a semi-arid area of Zimbabwe, Tropical Animal Health and Production, 37, 333–344.Google Scholar
  3. Chimonyo, M. and Dzama, K., 2007. Estimation of genetic parameters for growth performance and carcass traits in Mukota pigs, Animal, 1 (3), 317–323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chimonyo, M., Dzama, K. and Mapiye, C., 2010. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of indigenous Mukota pigs of Zimbabwe, Tropical Animal Health and Production, 42 (5), 1001–1007.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Drucker, A.G. and Anderson, S., 2004. Economic analysis of animal genetic resources and the use of rural appraisal methods: Lessons from Southeast Mexico, International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, 2 (2), 77–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Halimani, T.E., Muchadeyi, F.C., Chimonyo, M. and Dzama, K., 2010. Pig genetic resource conservation: The Southern African perspective, Ecological Economics, 69 (5), 944–951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Huynh, T.T.T., Aarnink, A.J.A., Drucker, A. and Verstegen, M.W.A., 2007. Pig production in Cambodia, Laos, Philippines, and Vietnam: a review, Asian Journal of Agriculture and Development, 4 (1), 69–90.Google Scholar
  8. Lemke, U. and Valle Zárate, A., 2008. Dynamics and development of smallholder pig production systems in North Vietnam, Agricultural Systems, 96, 207–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Lemke, U., Kaufmann, B., Thuy, L.T., Emrich, K. and Zárate, A.V., 2006. Evaluation of smallholder pig production systems in North Vietnam: Pig production management and pig performances, Livestock Science, 105, 229–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lemke, U., Kaufmann, B., Thuy, L.T., Emrich, K. and Zárate, A.V., 2007. Evaluation of biological and economic efficiency of smallholder pig production systems in North Vietnam, Tropical Animal Health and Production, 39, 237–254.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Mashatise, E., Hamudikuwanda, H., Dzama, K., Chimonyo, M. and Kanengoni, A., 2005. Socio-economic roles, traditional management systems and reproductive patterns of Mukota pigs in semi-arid north-eastern Zimbabwe, Bunda Journal of Agriculture, Environmental Science and Technology, 3, 97–105.Google Scholar
  12. Roessler, R., Drucker, A.G., Scarpa, R., Markemann, A., Lemke, U., Thuy, L.T. and Zárate, V., 2008. Using choice experiments to assess smallholder farmer's preferences for pig breeding traits in different production systems in North-West Vietnam, Ecological Economics, 66, 184–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Statistical Analysis Systems, 2003. SAS/STAT User's Guide, Release 8.1, (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina, USA).Google Scholar
  14. Wabacha, J.K., Maribei, J.M., Mulei, C.M., Kyule, M.N., Zessin, K.H. and Oluoch-Kosura, W., 2004. Characterisation of smallholder pig production in Kikuyu Division, central Kenya, Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 63, 183–195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. World Organisation for Animal Health, 2005. Classical Swine Fever in SA, follow-up report number 4, Disease Information, 18 (50), http://www.oie.int/Eng/info/hebdo/AIS_40.HTM#Sec3. Accessed 28 October 2009.
  16. Zanga, J., Chimonyo, M., Kanengoni, A., Dzama, K. and Mukaratirwa, S., 2003. A comparison of the susceptibility of growing Mukota and Large White pig genotypes to infection with Ascaris suum, Veterinary Research Communications, 27, 653–660.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • James Madzimure
    • 1
  • Michael Chimonyo
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kerstin K. Zander
    • 2
  • Kennedy Dzama
    • 3
  1. 1.Discipline of Animal and Poultry ScienceUniversity of KwaZulu-NatalPietermaritzburgRepublic of South Africa
  2. 2.Research Institute for Environment and LivelihoodsCharles Darwin UniversityDarwinAustralia
  3. 3.Department of Animal ScienceStellenbosch UniversityMatielandRepublic of South Africa

Personalised recommendations