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Documentation and determination of consensus about phytotherapeutic veterinary practices among the Tharu tribal community of Uttar Pradesh, India

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The aim of the present investigation was to document the phytotherapeutic knowledge and veterinary healthcare management practices among the Tharu tribal community of Uttar Pradesh, India and to determine the consensus of such practices, in order to evaluate the potential for new veterinary drugs of herbal origin.


This study was conducted in 2000–2004 using semistructured, open-ended questionnaires, informal interviews and group discussions with farmers engaged in animal husbandry.


In the present study, 59 phytotherapeutic practices using 48 plant species were documented for management of 18 types of healthcare problems of domesticated animals. Crude drug formulations keep the animal healthy, increase lactation, and reduce estrus interval and puberty period to make them economically more important. There was great agreement among informants regarding phytotherapeutic uses of medicinal plants with factor of informants’ consensus (F IC) value ranging from 0.84 to 1, with an average value of 0.94.


Study reveals that there is great agreement among informants for the usages of Azadirachta indica A Juss, Bombax ceiba L, Bambusa arundinacea (Retz) Willd, Corianderum sativum L, Cuscuta reflexa Roxb, Datura metal L, Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn, and Parthenium hysterophorus L. These species may be used for the development of new, cheep, effective, and eco-friendly herbal formulations for veterinary healthcare management. Further investigation of these herbal formulations for veterinary healthcare management will require safety and efficacy testing. There is an urgent need to formulate suitable conservation strategies for wildly growing phytotherapeutics to overcome their depletion from natural resources and to make these practices more eco-friendly.

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Fig. 1



Informants’ agreement ratio


Prior informed consent

F IC :

Factor of informants’ consensus

N UR :

Number of use reports for the treatment of particular group of disease/ailments


Number of taxa used for the treatment of particular group of disease/ailment


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The authors are thankful to Dr. J.P. Tewari, Professor, Department of Botany, Maharani Lal Kunwari Post Graduate College for identification of the many plant species and to Mr. Ravi Jyoti Mishra, Gaishari Block coordinator of the Beti Foundation for his help during the survey. We are very grateful to all local informants of the study area for their valuable information on ethnoveterinary practices for animal healthcare management. The authors are also thankful to Dr. Leslie J.S. Harrison and two anonymous reviewers for their valuable feedbacks.

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Correspondence to Akhilesh Kumar.

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Kumar, A., Pandey, V.C. & Tewari, D.D. Documentation and determination of consensus about phytotherapeutic veterinary practices among the Tharu tribal community of Uttar Pradesh, India. Trop Anim Health Prod 44, 863–872 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-011-9979-x

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  • Ethnoveterinary
  • Veterinary healthcare
  • F IC
  • Medicinal plants
  • Crude drug formulations
  • Tharu tribal community