Advertisement

Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 44, Issue 2, pp 293–299 | Cite as

Effect of nutrient density on production performance, egg quality and humoral immune response of brown laying (Dahlem Red) hens in the tropics

  • Arun Kumar PandaEmail author
  • Savaram Venkata Rama Rao
  • Mantena Venkata Lakshmi Narasimha Raju
  • Matam Niranjan
  • Maddula Ramkoti Reddy
Original Research

Abstract

A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of various concentrations of metabolizable energy (ME) with graded incremental levels of crude protein (CP) and essential amino acids (lysine and methionine) on production performance, egg quality and humoral immune response of Dahlem Red laying hens. Four experimental diets based on maize–soybean meal-deoiled rice bran were prepared. Diet 1 was fed as a control diet containing 2,600 kcal ME/kg, 15% CP, 0.75% Lys and 0.36% Met, and in the other three diets (D2, D3 and D4), concentrations of the above nutrients were increased by 2.5%, 5.0% and 7.5%, respectively. The levels of Ca (3.5%) and available P (0.32) were constant in all the diets. Each diet was offered ad libitum from 28 to 40 weeks of age to eight replicates containing six birds in each replicate. The egg production, egg weight and egg mass (in grams of egg per hen per day) were not affected by increasing the nutrient density up to 7.5% (2,795 kcal ME/kg diet) compared to the control group (2,600 ME/kg diet). However, feed consumption and feed efficiency (in grams of egg per gram of feed) were influenced by the variation in the nutrient density of diets. As the nutrient density increased by 5% (2,730 ME/kg diet), birds consumed significantly (P < 0.001) less feed. The birds in the 7.5% higher density group produced significantly (P < 0.05) higher egg mass per unit feed consumption compared to the control diet. Increasing nutrient density up to 7.5% had no effect on relative weight of albumen, yolk or shell. The Haugh unit, yolk colour and shell thickness were also not affected due to variation in the nutrient density. The humoral immune response measured at 34 and 40 weeks was progressively improved by increasing the nutrient density up to 5%. Increasing the nutrient density beyond 5% in the diet had no further influence on the humoral immune response. Based on the results of the present study, it can be concluded that Dahlem Red laying hens required 2,795 kcal/kg ME, 16% CP, 0.8% lysine and 0.4% methionine for eliciting optimum performance and immune response during 28 to 40 weeks of age.

Keywords

Nutrient density Production performance Egg quality Humoral immune response Dahlem Red layers 

Abbreviations

CP

Crude protein

DR

Dahlem Red

EEA

Essential amino acid

Lys

Lysine

ME

Metabolizable energy

Met

Methionine

NRC

National Research Council

NSS

Normal saline solution

SRBC

Sheep red blood cell

References

  1. AOAC, 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th edition, (Association of official analytical chemists, Washington)Google Scholar
  2. Baker, D.H., Batal, A.B., Parr, T.M., Augspurger, N.R. and Parsons, C.M., 2002. Ideal ratio (relative to lysine) of tryptophan, threonine, isoleucine and valine for chicks during the second and third weeks post hatch. Poultry Science, 81, 485–494PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Cherry, J.A., Jones, D.E., Calabotta, D.F. and Zelenca, D.J., 1983. Feed intake response of mature White Leghorn chickens to change in feed density. Poultry Science, 62, 1846–1849.Google Scholar
  4. Cook, M.E., 1991. Nutrition and the immune response of the domestic fowl. Critical Reviews in Poultry Biology, 3, 167–189Google Scholar
  5. Duncan, D.B., 1955. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics, 11, 1–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gomez, S. and Angeles., 2009. Effect of threonine and methionine levels in the diet of laying hens in the second cycle of production. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 18, 452–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Grabas, S., Mendez, J., De Blas, C., and Mateos, G.G., 1999. Laying hen productivity as affected by energy, supplemental fat, and linoleic acid concentration of diet. Poultry Science, 78, 1542–1551Google Scholar
  8. Gunawardana, P., Ronala, D.A. Sr. and Bryant, M.M., 2008. Performance comparison and lysine requirements of seven brown egg laying strains during phase one. International Journal of Poultry Science, 7, 806–812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Harms, R.H., Russell, G.B., Harlow, H. and Ivey, F.J., 1998. The influence of methionine on commercial laying hens. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 7, 45–52Google Scholar
  10. Harms, R.H., Hinton, K.L. and Russell, G.B., 1999. Energy: Methionine ratio and formulating feed for commercial layers. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 8, 272–279Google Scholar
  11. Harms, R.H., Russell, G.B. and Sloan, D.R., 2000. Performance of four strains of commercial layers with major changes in dietary energy. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 9, 535–541Google Scholar
  12. Junqueira, O.M., Laurentiz, De A.C., Da Silva Filardi, R., Rodrigues, E.A. and Casartelli, E.M., 2006. Effects of energy and protein levels on egg quality and performance of laying hens at early second production cycle. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 15, 110–115Google Scholar
  13. Katanbaf, M.N., Dunnington, E A. and Siegel, P.B. 1988., Allomorphic relationships from hatching to 56 days in parental lines and F1 crosses of chickens selected 27 generations for high or low body weight. Growth Development and Aging, 52, 11–22Google Scholar
  14. Kidd, M.T., 2004. Nutritional modulation of immune function in broilers. Poultry Science, 83, 650–657PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Latshaw, J.D., 1991. Nutrition – mechanisms of immunosuppression. Veterinary-Immunology & Immunopathology, 30, 111–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Leeson, S., Summers, J.D. and Caston. L.J., 2001. Response of layers to low nutrient density diets. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 9,535–541Google Scholar
  17. Llames, C.R. and Fontaine, J., 1994. Determination of amino acids in feeds: Collaborative study. Journal of Association of Official Analytical Chemist International, 77, 162–1402Google Scholar
  18. NRC, 1984. Nutrient requirement of poultry. Eighth revised edition. National Research Council. National Academy Press. Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  19. NRC, 1994. Nutrient requirements of poultry, 9th revised edition. National Research Council. National Academy Press. Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  20. Panda, A.K., Raju, M.V.L.N., Rao, S.V.R., Reddy, M.R., Chatterjee, R.N. and Shyam Sunder, G., 2010. Effect of lysine supplementation to low protein diet and its influence on production performance, egg quality and humoral immune response of White Leghorn layers. Indian Journal of Poultry Science, 45, 287–291Google Scholar
  21. Panda, A. K., Rao, S.V.R., Raju, M.V.L.N., Lavanya, G., Pradeep Kumar Reddy, E. and Shyam Sunder, G., 2011. Early Growth Response of Broilers to Dietary Lysine at Fixed Ratio to Crude Protein and Essential Amino Acids. Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 24, 1623–1628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Parson, C. M, Koelkebeck, W., Zhand, Y., Wang, X. and Leeper, K.W., 1993. Effect of dietary protein and added fat levels on performance of young laying hens. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 2, 214–220Google Scholar
  23. Praharaj, N.K., Reddy, M.R., Rao, S.V.R. and Sridevi, B., 1999. Growth, immune competence and disease resistance in diverse stocks of broiler parents reared under various energy levels. Archiv-fur-Geflugelkunde, 63, 270–276Google Scholar
  24. Saffa, H.M., Serrano, M.P., Valencia, D.G., Frikha, M., Jimnez, M.E. and Maetos, G.G., 2008. Productive performance and egg quality of brown egg-laying hens in the late phase of production as influenced by level and source of calcium in the diet. Poultry Science, 87, 2043–2051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Snedecor, G.W. and Cochran, W.G., 1989. Statistical Methods, (Oxford and IBH Publishing Company, New Delhi)Google Scholar
  26. Wegmann, T.G. and Smithies, O., 1966. A simple hemagglutination system requiring small amounts of red cells and antibodies. Transfusion, 6, 67–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Wu, G., Bryanth, M.M., Voitle, R.A. and Roland Sr. D.A., 2005. Effect of dietary energy on performance and egg composition of Bovans white and Dekalb white hens during phase 1. Poultry Science, 84, 1610–1615PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Wu, G., Bryant, M. M., Gunawardana, P. and Roland Sr. D. A., 2007. Effect of nutrient density on performance, egg components, egg solid, egg quality, and profits in Eight commercial Leghorn Strains during phase one. Poultry Science, 86, 691–697PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arun Kumar Panda
    • 1
    Email author
  • Savaram Venkata Rama Rao
    • 1
  • Mantena Venkata Lakshmi Narasimha Raju
    • 1
  • Matam Niranjan
    • 1
  • Maddula Ramkoti Reddy
    • 1
  1. 1.Project Directorate on PoultryHyderabadIndia

Personalised recommendations