Advertisement

Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 44, Issue 1, pp 35–42 | Cite as

Effect of carbohydrate sources and cotton seed meal in the concentrate: II. Feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in beef cattle

  • Metha WanapatEmail author
  • Suban Foiklang
  • Peter Rowlinson
  • Ruangyote Pilajun
Original Research

Abstract

Four, rumen fistulated crossbred (Brahman × native) beef cattle steers were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC) or CC + rice bran at a ratio 3:1 (CR3:1) and Factor B was cotton seed meal level (CM); and 109 g CP/kg (LCM) and 328 g CP/kg (HCM) at similar overall CP levels (490 g CP/kg). The animals were fed 5 g concentrate/kg BW, and urea-treated rice straw (UTS) (50 g urea/kg DM) was fed ad libitum. Carbohydrate source did not affect feed intake, nutrient digestibility, blood urea nitrogen, rumen fermentation, or microbial protein synthesis; however, animals fed with CC had a higher population of total viable bacteria than the CR3:1 treatment (P < 0.05). Animals that received HCM had a lower total feed intake while ruminal pH was higher than the LCM fed treatment (P < 0.05). The population of total viable and cellulolytic bacteria in animals that received HCM were lower than the LCM fed treatment (P < 0.05). Moreover, use of HCM in beef cattle diets resulted in lower microbial protein synthesis when compared with the LCM fed treatment (P < 0.05) although efficiency of microbial protein synthesis was nonsignificantly different among treatments. Therefore, cassava chip combined with rice bran can be used in a concentrate diet for beef cattle. It is also noted that a high level of cotton seed meal in the concentrate may impact rumen fermentation and animal performance.

Keywords

Cassava chip Cotton seed meal Rumen fermentation Nutrient digestibility Microbial population Beef cattle 

Abbreviations

CC

Cassava chip

CR3:1

Cassava chip + rice bran 3:1

LCM

Low cotton seed meal

HCM

High cotton seed meal

CS

Energy sources

CM

Cotton seed meal levels

CFU

Colony forming unit

DOMR

Digestible organic matter in the rumen

UTS

Urea-treated rice straw

NDF

Neutral detergent fiber

ADF

Acid detergent fiber

BUN

Blood urea nitrogen

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to express their most sincere thanks to Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center (TROFREC), Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Thailand for their kind financial support and use of research facilities.

References

  1. Agricultural Research Council (ARC), 1984. The Nutrient Requirements of Ruminant Livestock, Supplement No. 1., (Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Farnham Royal, UK)Google Scholar
  2. Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC), 1995. Official Methods of Analysis, 16th ed., (Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Gaithersburg, MD)Google Scholar
  3. Bach, A., Calsamiglia, S. and Stern, M.D., 2005. Nitrogen metabolism in the rumen, Journal of Dairy Science, 88, E9–E21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baldwin VI, R.L., 1998. Use of isolated ruminal epithelial cells in the study of rumen metabolism, Journal of Nutrition, 128, 293S–296SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Beauchemin, K.A., Yang, W.Z. and Rode, L.M., 2001. Effects of barley grain processing on the site and extent of digestion of beef feedlot finishing diets, Journal of Animal Science, 79, 1925–1936PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bryant, M.P. and Robinson, I.M., 1961. Studies on the nitrogen requirements of some ruminal cellulolytic bacteria, Journal of Applied Microbiology, 9, 96–103Google Scholar
  7. Caton, J.S., Hoefler, W.C., Galyean, M.L. and Funk, M.A., 1988. Influence of cottonseed meal supplementation and cecal antibiotic infusion in lambs fed low-quality forage. I. Intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance and ruminal and cecal digesta kinetics. Journal of Animal Science, 66, 2245–2252.Google Scholar
  8. Chen, X.B. and Gomes, M.J., 1995. Estimation of microbial protein supply to sheep and cattle based on urinary excretion of purine perivatives—an overview of the technical details, Aberdeen, 1992, (International Feed Resources Unit, Rowel Research Institude, Aberdeen, UK; Occasional Publication)Google Scholar
  9. National Research Council (NRC), 2001. Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, 7th rev. ed., (National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.)Google Scholar
  10. Crocker, C.L., 1967. Rapid determination of urea nitrogen in serum or plasma without deproteinzation, The American Journal of Medical Technology, 33, 361–365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Dewhurst, R.J., Davies, D.R. and Merry, R.J., 2000. Microbial protein supply from the rumen, Journal of Animal Feed Science and Technology, 85, 1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Firkins, J.L., Hristov, A.N., Hall, M.B., Varga, G.A. and St-Pierre, N.R., 2006. Integration of ruminal metabolism in dairy cattle, Journal of Dairy Science, 89, E31–E51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Galyean, M., 1989. Laboratory Procedure in Animal Nutrition Research, (Department of Animal and Life Science, New Mexico State University, USA).Google Scholar
  14. Goering, H.K. and Van Soest, P.J., 1970. Forage Fiber Analyses (Apparatus, Reagents, Procedures, and Some Applications), Agriculture Handbook No. 379, (ARS-USDA, Washington, DC)Google Scholar
  15. Granum, G., Wanapat, M., Pakdee, P., Wachirapakorn, C. and Toburan, W., 2007. A comparative study on the effect of cassava hay supplementation in swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos indicus), Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science, 20, 1389–1396Google Scholar
  16. Hungate, R.E., 1966. The rumen and its microbes, (Academic Press, New York and London)Google Scholar
  17. Hungate, R.E., 1969. A roll tube method for cultivation of strict anaerobes. In: J.R. Norris, and D.W. Ribbons (eds), Methods in Microbiology, (Academic Press, New York), 313–117Google Scholar
  18. Khampa, S., Wanapat, M., Wachirapakorn, C., Nontaso, N. and Wattiaux, M., 2006. Effects of urea level and sodium DL-malate in concentrate containing high cassava chip on ruminal fermentation efficiency, microbial protein synthesis in lactating dairy cows raised under tropical condition, Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science, 19, 837–841Google Scholar
  19. Khan, M.A., Lee, H.J., Lee, W.S., Kim, H.S., Kim, S.B., Park, S.B., Baek, K.S., Ha, J.K. and Choi, Y.J., 2008. Starch source evaluation in calf starter: II. Ruminal parameters, rumen development, nutrient digestibilities, and nitrogen utilization in Holstein calves, Journal of Dairy Science, 91, 1140–1149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lapierre, H. and Lobley, G.E., 2001. Nitrogen recycling in the ruminant: A review, Journal of Dairy Science, 84(E. Suppl.), E223-E236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Maltby, S.A., Lomax, M.A., Beever, D.E. and Pippard, C.J., 1991. The effect of increased ammonia and amino acid supply on postprandial portal-drained viscera and hepatic metabolism in growing steers fed maize silage. In: C. Went and M. Boessinger (eds.), Energy Metabolism of Farm Animals, Proceeding of 12th Symposium EAAP Publ. 58, ETH-Zentrum, Zurich, Switzerland, 20–23Google Scholar
  22. Nocek, J. and Russell, J.B., 1988. Protein and carbohydrate as an integrated system. Relationship of ruminal availability to microbial contribution and milk production, Journal of Dairy Science, 71, 2070–2078CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Promkot, C. and Wanapat, M., 2005. Effect of level of crude protein and use of cottonseed meal in diets containing cassava chips and rice straw for lactating dairy cows, Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science, 18, 502–511Google Scholar
  24. Richardson, J.M., Wilkinson, R.G. and Sinclair, L.A., 2003. Synchrony of nutrient supply to the rumen and dietary energy source and their effects on the growth and metabolism of lambs, Journal of Animal Science, 81, 1332–1347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Russell, J.B. and Rychlik, J.L., 2001. Factors that alter rumen microbial ecology, Science, 292, 1119–1122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Samuel, M., Sagathewan, S., Thomas, J. and Mathen, G., 1997. An HPLC method for estimation of volatile fatty acids of ruminal fluid, Indian Journal of Animal Science, 67, 805–807Google Scholar
  27. SAS, User’s Guide: Statistic, Version 5. Edition. 1996, (SAS, Inst Cary, NC., USA)Google Scholar
  28. Sejrsen, K., Hvelplund, T. And Nielsen, M.O., 2006. Ruminant physiology: digestion, metabolism and impact of nutrition on gene, (Wageningen Academic Publishers, the Netherlands)Google Scholar
  29. Shibanda, S., Ndlova, L.R. and Smith, T., 1992. Effects of undegradable protein supplements on the performance of weaner steers fed veld hay sprayed with urea. In: J.E.C. Stares, A.N. Said, and J.A. Kategaile (eds.), Proceedings of the joint feed resources networks workshop, March 4–8, 1992, Botswana, GaboroneGoogle Scholar
  30. Shriver, B. J., W.H., Hoover, Sargent, J.P., Crawford, Jr., R.J. and Thayne, W.V., 1986. Fermentation of a high-concentrate diet as affected by ruminal pH and digesta flow, Journal of Dairy Science, 69, 413–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Stern, M.D. and Hoover, W.H., 1979. Methods for determining and factors affecting rumen microbial protein synthesis: a review, Journal of Animal Science, 49, 1590–1603Google Scholar
  32. Strobel, H.J. and Russell, J.B., 1986. Effect of pH and energy spilling on bacterial protein synthesis by carbohydrate limited cultures of rumen mixed bacteria, Journal of Dairy Science, 69, 2941–2947PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Tajima, M., Aminov, R.I., Nagamine, T., Matsui, H., Nakamura, M. and Benno, Y., 2001. Diet-Dependent Shifts in the Bacterial Population of the Rumen Revealed with Real-Time PCR, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 67, 2766–2774PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wanapat, M., 1999. Feeding of ruminants in the tropics based on local feed resources, (Khon Kaen Publishing Company Ltd., Khon Kaen, Thailand)Google Scholar
  35. Wanapat, M., 2003. Manipulation of cassava cultivation and utilization to improve protein to energy biomass for livestock feeding in the tropics, Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science, 16, 463–472Google Scholar
  36. Wanapat, M. and Khampa, S., 2007. Effect of levels of supplementation of concentrate containing high levels of cassava chip on rumen ecology, microbial N supply and digestibility of nutrients in beef cattle, Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science, 20, 75–81Google Scholar
  37. Wanapat, M. and Rowlinson, P., 2007. Nutrition and feeding of swamp buffalo: feed resources and rumen approach, Italian Journal of Animal Science, 6 (Suppl. 1), 67–73Google Scholar
  38. Wanapat, M., Sommart, K. and Saardrak, K., 1996. Cottonseed meal supplementation of dairy cattle fed rice straw, Livestock Research for Rural Development, 8, Number 3, http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd8/3/metha83.htm
  39. Wanapat, M., Pilajun, R. and Kongmun, P., 2009a. Ruminal ecology of swamp buffalo as influenced by dietary sources, Journal of Animal Feed Science and Technology, 151, 205–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wanapat, M., Polyorach, S., Boonnop, K., Mapato, C. and Cherdthong, A., 2009b. Effect of treating rice straw with urea or urea and calcium hydroxide upon intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and milk yield of dairy cows, Livestock Science, 125, 238–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wang, Y.H., Xua, M., Wang, F.N., Yu, Z.P., Yao, J.H., Zan, L.S. and Yang, F.X., 2009. Effect of dietary starch on rumen and small intestine morphology and digesta pH in goats, Livestock Science, 122, 48–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wora-Anu, S., Wanapat, M., Wachirapakorn, C. and Nontaso, N., 2007. Effect of roughage sources on cellulolytic bacteria and rumen ecology of beef cattle, Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science, 20, 1705–1712Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Metha Wanapat
    • 1
    Email author
  • Suban Foiklang
    • 1
  • Peter Rowlinson
    • 2
  • Ruangyote Pilajun
    • 1
  1. 1.Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center (TROFREC), Department of Animal Science, Faculty of AgricultureKhon Kaen UniversityKhon KaenThailand
  2. 2.School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development Agriculture BuildingNewcastle UniversityNewcastle upon TyneUK

Personalised recommendations