Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 43, Issue 3, pp 665–667 | Cite as

Environmental factors affecting milk, fat and protein yields in Jersey cattle in Zimbabwe

  • Edward Mtunduwatha Missanjo
  • Venancio E. Imbayarwo-Chikosi
  • Tinyiko E. Halimani
Original Research


A study was carried out to establish the factors affecting milk, butterfat and protein yields in Zimbabwean Jersey cattle. A total of 10,986 unedited 305-day lactation records were obtained from Zimbabwe Livestock Identification Trust containing 25 herds, with cows calving in the period 1996–2008. The general linear model procedure of the Statistical Analysis Systems version 9.1.3 was used to determine the environmental factors. Herd-year-season, calving interval, days dry and both the linear and quadratic effects of age at calving fitted as covariates significantly (P < 0.0001) affected the milk, fat and protein yields. Herd-year-season accounted for 36%, 36% and 35% to the total variation in milk, fat and protein yields, respectively. Milk, fat and protein yields increased with an increase in calving interval. The optimum dry period for milk, fat and protein yields obtained was 60–75 days dry. The relationship between the production traits and age at calving was both linear and quadratic, implying that milk, fat and protein yields increase with the age of the animal. It is thus necessary to preadjust data for these environmental factors when carrying out genetic evaluations of production traits in dairy cattle.


Non-genetic factors Herd Season Calving interval Days dry 



The authors thank Mr. NB Mware and his colleagues of Zimbabwe Livestock Identification Trust (LIT) for providing them with data that was used in this study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edward Mtunduwatha Missanjo
    • 1
  • Venancio E. Imbayarwo-Chikosi
    • 2
  • Tinyiko E. Halimani
    • 2
  1. 1.Malawi College of Forestry and WildlifeDedzaMalawi
  2. 2.Department of Animal Science, Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of ZimbabweHarareZimbabwe

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