Advertisement

Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 43, Issue 3, pp 651–656 | Cite as

Seroprevalence of brucellosis and its contribution to abortion in cattle, camel, and goat kept under pastoral management in Borana, Ethiopia

  • Bekele Megersa
  • Demelash Biffa
  • Fufa Abunna
  • Alemayehu Regassa
  • Jacques Godfroid
  • Eystein Skjerve
Original Research

Abstract

The involvement of Brucella infection in causing abortion was investigated in a breeding female subpopulation of 283 cattle, 756 camels, and 757 goats. Serum samples were serially tested using the Rose Bengal test and complement fixation test. The study showed that anti-Brucella antibodies were prevalent in 10.6% (95% confidence interval (CI), 7.4, 14.9), 2.2% (95%CI, 1.4, 3.7), and 1.9% (95%CI, 1.1, 3.2) of cattle, camel, and goats, respectively. Abortion was more commonly reported in camels (23.4%) than cattle (13.8%) and goats (12.4%). The results of this study suggested that Brucella infections contribute significantly to abortion in cattle (odds ratio (OR), = 4.7; 95%CI, 2.0, 10.8) and goats (OR = 6.9; 95%CI, 2.2, 21.7) but not in camels. The number of young animals produced by breeding females seems to be apparently reduced in seropositive groups. Keeping more than two animal species at household level was found to be the risk factor for cattle (OR = 3.1; 95%CI, 1.2, 7.9) and camel (OR = 5.3; 95%CI, 1.2–23.5) seropositivity to Brucella infection when compared to those animals from households that keep only two animal species. This may suggest a possibility of cross species transmission of Brucella infection under such mixed herding. Wet season (OR = 4.8; 95%CI, 1.3, 18.1) was found to be associated with seropositivity in goats, linked to a coincidence of increased deliveries in flocks with possible excretion of Brucella organisms. The study results suggest that Brucella infection is the likely cause of abortion in cattle and goats while other causes largely outweigh brucellosis as a cause of abortion in camels in Borana, hence, contributing to reproductive loss.

Keywords

Brucellosis Seroprevalence Abortion Cattle Camel Goat Ethiopia 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was partly supported by Drylands Coordination Group (DCG), Norway as part of a camel disease research project and partly by the Research and Extension Office of Hawassa University. The field assistance of veterinary staff and willingness of animal owners to cooperate had vital contributions. All contributions are gratefully acknowledged.

References

  1. Abbas, B., Agab, H., 2002. A review of camel brucellosis. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 55, 47–56.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Al-Majali, A.M., 2005. Seroepidemiology of caprine brucellosis in Jordan. Small Ruminant Research, 58, 13–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Al-Majali, A.M., Al-Qudah, K.M., Al-Tarazi, Y.H., Al-Rawashdeh, O.F., 2008. Risk factors associated with camel brucellosis in Jordan. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 40, 193–200.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Andersen, F.M., Pedersen, K.B., 1995. Brucellosis: A case of natural infection of a cow with Brucella suis biotype 2 (in Danish). Dansk Veterinaertidsskrift, 78, 408.Google Scholar
  5. Ashenafi, F., Teshale, S., Ejeta, G., Fikru, R., Laikemariam Y., 2007. Distribution of brucellosis among small ruminants in Afar region of Eastern Ethiopia. Revue Scientifique et Technique, 26, 731–739.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Berhe, G., Belihu, K., Asfaw, Y., 2007. Seroepidemiological Investigation of bovine brucellosis in extensive cattle production system of Tigray Region of Ethiopia. International Journal of Applied Research in Veterinary Medicine, 5, 65–71.Google Scholar
  7. Cadmus, S.I.B., Ijabone, I.F., Oputa, H.E., Adesoken, H.K., Stack, J.A., 2006. Serological survey of brucellosis in livestock animals and workers in Ibadan Nigeria, African Journal of Biomedical Research, 9, 163–168.Google Scholar
  8. Coppock, D.L., 1994. The Borana Plateau of Southern Ethiopia: Synthesis of the pastoral research, development and change, 1980–1991. ILRI, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.Google Scholar
  9. Dawood, H.A., 2008. Brucellosis in camels (Camelus dromedorius) in the south province of Jordan. American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences, 3, 623–626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dohoo, I., Martin, S.W., Stryhn, H., 2003. Veterinary Epidemiologic Research. AVC Inc. Charlottetown, Price Edward’s Island, pp. 34–56.Google Scholar
  11. Godfroid, J., Cloeckaert, A., Liautard, J.P., Kohler, S., Fretin, D., Walravens, K., Garin-Bastuji, B., Letesson, J.J., 2005. From the discovery of the Malta fever’s agent to the discovery of a marine mammal reservoir, brucellosis has continuously been a re-emerging zoonosis. Veterinary Research, 36, 313–26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Kabagambe, E.K., Elzer, P.H., Geaghan, J.P., Opuda-Asibo, J., Scholl, D.T., Miller, J.E., 2001. Risk factors for Brucella seropositivity in goat herds in Eastern Uganda. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 52, 91–108.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Kaoud, H.A., Zaki, M.M., Shimaa, A.R.D, Nasr, A., 2010. Epidemiology of Brucellosis among Farm Animals. Nature and Science 8, 190–197.Google Scholar
  14. Kebede, T., Ejeta, G., Ameni, G., 2008. Seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in smallholder dairy farms in central Ethiopia (Wuchale-Jida District). Revue de’ Elevage et Medicine Veterinaire des Pays Tropicaux, 159, 3–9.Google Scholar
  15. McDermott, J.J., Deng, K.A., Jayatileka, T.N., El-Jack, M.A., 1987. A cross-sectional cattle disease study in Konger Rural Council, Southern Sudan. II. Brucellosis in Cows: Associated Factor,Impact on Production and Disease Control Considerations. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 5, 125–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Megersa, B., Molla, B., Yigezu, L., 2005. Seroprevalence of brucellosis in Camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Borana lowland, Southern Ethiopia. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 53, 252–257.Google Scholar
  17. Mekonnen, H., Kalayou, S., Kyule, M., 2010. Serological survey of bovine brucellosis in Barka and Arado breeds (Bos indicus) of Western Tigray, Ethiopia. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 94, 28–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mokhtar, M., Abdelhamid, A.A., Sarah, M.A.A., Abbas M.A., 2007. Survey of brucellosis among sheep, goats, cattle and camel in Kassala area, Eastern Sudan. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 6, 635–637.Google Scholar
  19. Muma, J.B., Godfroid, J., Samui, K.L., Skjerve, E., 2007. The role of Brucella infection in abortions among traditional cattle reared in proximity to wildlife on the Kafue flats of Zambia. Revue Scientifique et Technique, 26, 721–730.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Musa, M.T., Shigidi, M.T.A., 2001. Brucellosis in camels in intensive animal breeding areas of Sudan: Implications in abortions and early life infection. Revue d’Elevage et Medicine Veterinaire des Pays Tropicaux, 54, 11–15.Google Scholar
  21. Musa, M.T., Eisa, M.Z.M., El Sanousi, E.M., Abdel Wahab, M.B., Perrett, L., 2008. Brucellosis in camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Darfur, Western Sudan. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 138, 151–155.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Ocholi, R.A., Kwaga, J.K., Ajogi, I., Bale, J.O., 2004. Phenotypic characterization of Brucella strains isolated from livestock in Nigeria. Veterinary Microbiology, 103, 47–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Oloffs, A., Baumann, M.P.O., Afema, J., Nakavuma, J., 1998. Experiences with a strategy to investigate bovine brucellosis in a rural area in southwest Uganda. Revue d’Elevage et Medicine Veterinaire des Pays Tropicaux, 51, 101–105.Google Scholar
  24. Olsen, S., Tatum, F., 2010. Bovine brucellosis. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice, 26, 15–27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Radostits, E., Gay, C.C., Blood, D.G., and Hinchcliff, K.W. 2000. Veterinary Medicine: a textbook of diseases of cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and horses. 9th ed., W.B. Saunders Company Ltd, London. pp. 867–882.Google Scholar
  26. Schelling, E., Diguimbaye, C., Daoud, S., Nicolet, J., Boerlin, M.P., Tanner, M., Zinsstag, J., 2003. Brucellosis and Q-fever seroprevalences of nomadic pastoralists and livestock in Chad. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 61, 279–293.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Teshale, S., Muhie, Y., Dagne, A., Kidanemariam, A., 2006. Seroprevalence of small ruminant brucellosis in selected districts of Afar and Somali pastoral areas of Eastern Ethiopia: the impact of husbandry practice. Revue de’ Elevage et Medicine Veterinaire des Pays Tropicaux, 157, 557–563.Google Scholar
  28. Teshome, H., Molla, B., Tibbo, M. 2003. A sero-prevalence study of camel brucellosis in three camels rearing regions of Ethiopia. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 35, 381–390.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Tibary, A., Fite, C., Anouassi, A., Sghiri A., 2006. Infectious causes of reproductive loss in camelids. Theriogenology, 66, 633–647.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Verger, J.M., Garin-Bastuji, B., Grayon, M., Mahé, A.M., 1989. Bovine brucellosis caused by Brucella melitensis in France (article in French). Annales de Recherches Veterinaires, 20, 93–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Verma, S., Katoch, R. C., Sharma, M., Nigam, P., 2000. Abortions and infertility in livestock due to brucellosis in Himachal Pradesh, India. Veterinarski Arhiv, 70, 75–82.Google Scholar
  32. World Health Organization (WHO), 2006. Brucellosis in human and animals. World Health Organization 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. WHO Press, WC310Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bekele Megersa
    • 1
    • 2
  • Demelash Biffa
    • 1
    • 2
  • Fufa Abunna
    • 1
  • Alemayehu Regassa
    • 1
  • Jacques Godfroid
    • 3
  • Eystein Skjerve
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Veterinary MedicineHawassa UniversityHawassaEthiopia
  2. 2.Center for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Norwegian School of Veterinary ScienceOsloNorway
  3. 3.Section of Arctic MedicineNorwegian School of Veterinary ScienceTromsøNorway

Personalised recommendations