Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 43, Issue 1, pp 171–177 | Cite as

Ripening influences banana and plantain peels composition and energy content

  • Thomas Happi Emaga
  • Jérôme Bindelle
  • Richard Agneesens
  • André Buldgen
  • Bernard Wathelet
  • Michel Paquot
Original Research


Musa sp. peels are widely used by smallholders as complementary feeds for cattle in the tropics. A study of the influence of the variety and the maturation stage of the fruit on fermentability and metabolisable energy (ME) content of the peels was performed using banana (Yangambi Km5) and plantain (Big Ebanga) peels at three stages of maturation in an in vitro model of the rumen. Peel samples were analysed for starch, free sugars and fibre composition. Samples were incubated in the presence of rumen fluid. Kinetics of gas production were modelled, ME content was calculated using prediction equation and short-chain fatty acids production and molar ratio were measured after 72 h of fermentation. Final gas production was higher in plantain (269–339 ml g−1) compared to banana (237–328 ml g−1) and plantain exhibited higher ME contents (8.9–9.7 MJ/kg of dry matter, DM) compared to banana (7.7–8.8 MJ/kg of DM). Butyrate molar ratio decreased with maturity of the peels. The main influence of the variety and the stage of maturation on all fermentation parameters as well as ME contents of the peels was correlated to changes in the carbohydrate fraction of the peels, including starch and fibre.


Banana Plantain Peels In vitro fermentation Nutritive value 



acid detergent fibre


acid detergent lignin


Plantain variety “Big Ebanga”


crude protein


dry matter


insoluble dietary fibre


in vitro dry matter digestibility


metabolisable energy


neutral detergent fibre


organic matter digestibility


short-chain fatty acids


soluble dietary fibre


total dietary fibre


Banana variety “Yangambi km5”



T. Happi Emaga was funded by the Commission universitaire pour le Développement (CUD, CIUF, Brussels, Belgium). The authors are also grateful to the technical staff of the laboratory of postharvest technology (CARBAP, Cameroon).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas Happi Emaga
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jérôme Bindelle
    • 3
  • Richard Agneesens
    • 4
  • André Buldgen
    • 3
  • Bernard Wathelet
    • 1
  • Michel Paquot
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Liège, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, Department of Industrial Biological ChemistryGemblouxBelgium
  2. 2.African Research Centre on Bananas and Plantains (CARBAP)DoualaCameroon
  3. 3.University of Liège, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, Animal Science UnitGemblouxBelgium
  4. 4.Section Systèmes agricolesCentre wallon de Recherches agronomiques6800LibramontBelgium

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