The effect of washing frequency on the physiological responses and performance of buffalo calves was studied in hot summer. Thirty Nili-Ravi calves aged 4–6 months were divided into three uniform groups of ten. The calves of group A, B and C were washed two (9 a.m. and 3 p.m.), three (8 a.m., 12 noon and 4 p.m.) and four (8 a.m., 11 a.m., 2 p.m. and 5 p.m.) times in a day, respectively. They were washed with water for 5 min at a stretch. The mean linear body measurements, body weight, dry matter intake through concentrate, green fodder and physiological responses, i.e. rectal temperature, pulse rate and respiration rate before and after washing under different daily washing frequency were recorded fortnightly. The average daily gain was also calculated. The mean total dry matter intake was increased with the increase frequency of washing. The maximum mean daily body weight gain was recorded in group C followed by group B and A. There were statistically significant (P < 0.05) differences between the three washing groups. Calves were more comfortable with increase number of washing in a day in hot summer. The rectal temperature, pulse rate and respiration rate also varied significantly (P < 0.05) between the three experiment groups. It can be concluded that daily four times washing in hot summer had more beneficial effects over three and two times washing of young Nili-Ravi buffalo calves to decrease rectal temperature, pulse rate and respiration rate and to increase average feed utilization and daily gain under tropical climate.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Aggarwal, A. and Singh, M., 2008. Changes of skin and rectal temperature in lactating buffaloes provided with showers and wallowing during hot-dry season, Tropical Animal Health and Production, 40, 223-228.
Avendano-Reyes, L., Alvarez-Valenzuela, F. D., Correa-Calderon, A., Saucedo-Quintero, J. S., Robinson, P. H. and Fadel, J. G., 2006. Effect of cooling Holstein cows during the dry period on postpartum performance under heat stress conditions, Livestock Science, 105, 198-206.
Das, K. S., 2001. Studies on prepartum management and its relationship with subsequent production and reproduction in crossbred primiparous dairy cows. Ph.D. Thesis, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, UP, India.
Davis, S. and Mader, T., 2002. Effect of altered feeding and sprinkling on performance and body temperature of steers finished in the summer, Nabraska Beef Report. pp 61–65.
Davis, S., Mader, T. L. and Gaughan, J.B., 2002. Effect of sprinkling on heat stressed heifers, Nebraska Beef Report. pp 57–61.
Kamboj, M. L., Paul, S. S. and Chawla, D. S., 2000. Influence of wallowing on efficiency of feed utilization and reproductive performance of Nili-Ravi buffalo heifers, Annual Report, CIRB-1999-2000.
Marai, I. F. M. and Haeeb, A. A. M., 2010. Buffalo's biological functions as affected by heat stress—A review, Livestock Science, 127, 89-109.
Marai, I. F. M., Habeeb, A. A., Daader, A. H. and Yousef, H. M., 1995. Effects of Egyptian subtropical summer conditions and the heat-stress alleviation technique of water spray and a diaphoretic on the growth and physiological functions of Friesian calves, Journal of Arid Environments, 30, 219-225.
Rahangdale, P. B., Ambulkar, D. R., Panchbhai, G. J., Kharwadkar, M. D. and Naresh Kumar, 2010. Effect of wallowing and splashing on body temperature and milk yield in Murrah buffaloes during summer. In: Proceedings of International Buffalo Congress, vol II, 1–4 February 2010, New Delhi. p 102.
Singh, G., Kamboj, M. L. and Patil, N. V., 2005. Effect of thermal protective measures during hot humid season on productive and reproductive performance of Nili-Ravi buffaloes, Indian Buffalo Journal, 3, 101-104.
SPSS, 2001. Statistical Packages for Social Sciences, Version 11.01, SPSS Inc., Illinois, USA.
West, J. W., 2003. Effects of heat-stress on production in dairy cattle, Journal of Dairy Science, 86, 2131–2144.
The authors wish to thank the Director, CIRB, Hisar for providing necessary facilities to carry out this experiment in the Regional Station of Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes (CIRB), Bir Dosanjh, Nabha.
About this article
Cite this article
Das, K.S., Singh, G., Paul, S.S. et al. Physiological responses and performance of Nili-Ravi buffalo calves under different washing frequency during hot summer months in tropics. Trop Anim Health Prod 43, 35–39 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-010-9651-x
- Hot summer months
- Nili-Ravi buffalo calves
- Physiological response
- Washing frequency