Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 42, Issue 3, pp 357–362 | Cite as

Factors influencing production of hygienic raw milk by small scale dairy producers in selected areas of the Jaffna district, Sri Lanka

  • Sukanthy Vairamuthu
  • Jeyalingawathani Sinniah
  • Kalamathy Nagalingam


The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of dairy cow management techniques and milking methods on hygienic quality of raw milk. Total Bacterial Count (TBC) and Total Coliform Colonies (TCC) were studied to determine the effects. Investigations were carried out in fifty dairy farms from August 2007 to December 2007. The mean TBC and TCC for the herds with comparatively good and poor management practices were 0.9 × 105 cfu/ml and 0.2 × 103/ml and 99 × 105 cfu/ml and >180 × 103/ml, respectively. The overall mean TBC (22 × 105 cfu/ml) and TCC (47 × 103/ml) obtained in this study exceeded the internationally recommended levels for TBC (105 cfu/ml) and TCC (<1,000/ml). The overall results obtained suggested that the raw milk tested was of poor hygienic quality with the presence of a great variability among milk samples.


Raw milk Hygienic quality Dairy microbiology Total bacterial count Total coliform count 



Authors willing to express their sincere gratitude to Dr.K.Sivapalan Dean Faculty of Medicine, University of Jaffna for allowing them to carry out the microbial analysis at the Pathology Laboratory and Mr.P.Thevapatham, Staff Technical Officer, Division of Microbiology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jaffna for his continuous help in the laboratory analysis.


  1. Altug, G. and Bayrak,Y., 2003. Microbiological analysis of caviar from Russia and Iran. Food Microbiology, 20, 83–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bartlett, P.F., 1980. Cost benefit analysis: a test of alternative methodologies, Agricultural decision making to Rural Development, (Academic Press, Rando San Diego, New York)Google Scholar
  3. Bramley, A.J. and McKinnon,C.H.,1990. The microbiology of raw milk, Dairy Microbiology,1, 163–208Google Scholar
  4. El-Hadi Sulieman,A.M., 2007. Effect of pretreatment of milk quality characteristics of Jibna-Beida (White Cheese), International Journal of Food Engineering, 4,15Google Scholar
  5. Farhan, M. and Salik, S., 2007. Evaluation of bacteriological contamination in raw (unprocessed) milk sold in different regions of Lahore (Pakistan), Journal of Agriculture & Social Sciences, 1813–2235Google Scholar
  6. Gran,H.M., Mutukumira, A. N., Wetlesen, A. and Narvhus, J. A., 2002. Smallholder dairy processing in Zimbabwe: hygienic practices during milking and the microbiological quality of the milk at the farm and on delivery, Food Control, 13, 41–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Kyozaire,J.K., 2003. Microbiological quality of goat milk obtained under different production system. (Unpublished MMed Vet(Hyg) Thesis, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria)Google Scholar
  8. Mohamed, N.N.I. and EL Zubeir, IEM., 2007. Evaluation of the hygienic quality of market milk of Khartoum state (Sudan). International journal of Dairy Science, 2, 42-49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. McKinnon, C.H., Rowlands, G.J. and Bramley. A.J., 1990. The effect of udder preparation before milking and contamination from the milking plant on the bacterial numbers in bulk milk of eight dairy herds. Journal of Dairy Research. 57,307CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Omore,A., Stall.S.J., Osafo.E.L.K., Kurwijilla.L.,Barton.D., Mdoe.N., Nurah.G. and Aning.G., 2004. Market Mechanisms, Efficiency,Processing and Public health risks in Peri Urban Dairy product markets: Synthesis of findings from Ghana and Tanzania. Final Technical Report for LPP Project R7321.Google Scholar
  11. Reinemann,D.J, Grea M.V.H., and Rasmussen, M.D., 2000. Review of practices for cleaning and sanitation of milking machines. Paper presented at the Pacific Dairy Congress Nagano Japan.Google Scholar
  12. Sraïri, M.T., Moudnib, J., Rahho, L. and Hamama,A., 2006. How do milking conditions affect the hygienic quality of raw milk?Case study from Moroccan dairy farms. Livestock research for rural development, 18Google Scholar
  13. Van Schaika,G., Green,L.G.,Guzman,D., Esparza,H. and Tadich,N., 2005. Risk factors for bulk milk somatic cell counts and total bacterial counts in small holder dairy farmers in the 10th region of Chile. Preventive veterinary medicine, 67,1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Vissers, M. M. M., Driehuis,F., Te Giffel, M. C., De Jong,P. and Lankveld, J. M. G., 2007. Short Communication: Quantification of the Transmission of Microorganisms to Milk via Dirt Attached to the Exterior of Teats. Journal of Dairy Science, 90,3579–3582.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sukanthy Vairamuthu
    • 1
  • Jeyalingawathani Sinniah
    • 1
  • Kalamathy Nagalingam
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Animal Science, Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of JaffnaThirunelvelySri Lanka
  2. 2.Department of Pathology, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of JaffnaThirunelvelySri Lanka

Personalised recommendations