Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in sheep and goats in Rahim Yar Khan (Punjab), Pakistan

  • M. Ramzan
  • M. AkhtarEmail author
  • F. Muhammad
  • I. Hussain
  • E. Hiszczyńska-Sawicka
  • A. U. Haq
  • M. S. Mahmood
  • M. A. Hafeez
Original Paper


Toxoplasmosis, an infection caused by Toxoplasma (T.) gondii Apicomplexa protozoan, is widespread in humans and other animal species, having already been reported in many countries and different climates. In Pakistan, no data is available on this aspect among food animals. This study was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in sheep and goats. A total of 200 serum samples from sheep and goats, were collected from urban area of Rahim Yar Khan (Punjab), Pakistan and tested for Toxoplasmosis with a commercial latex agglutination kit (Eiken Chemical Co., Ltd. Japan). The overall seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis was 19%. Goats had a significantly higher (p < 0.01) prevalence (25.4%) as compared to the sheep (11.2%); and higher (p < 0.01) in the female (24%) than in the males (19%) for both species. In the present study the male (both in sheep and goat) are found less seropositive T. gondii (OR = 0.23; 99% C.I. = 0.01, 1.81) as compared to female sheep and goat. The prevalence was significantly higher (p < 0.01) in adult sheep than younger animals. Among both the sheep and goats the group from 1–1.5 years are highly seropositive (OR = 1.75; 99% C.I. = 0.47, 6.51) as compared to the group less than one year of age followed by the 2–2.5 years age group (OR = 1.63; 99% C.I. = 0.50, 5.74) whereas group with more than 3 years of age least seropositive.


Toxoplasma gondii Sheep Goat Seroprevalence Pakistan 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Ramzan
    • 1
  • M. Akhtar
    • 1
    Email author
  • F. Muhammad
    • 2
  • I. Hussain
    • 3
  • E. Hiszczyńska-Sawicka
    • 4
  • A. U. Haq
    • 5
  • M. S. Mahmood
    • 3
  • M. A. Hafeez
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ParasitologyUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan
  2. 2.Department of Physiology & PharmacologyUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan
  3. 3.Department of MicrobiologyUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan
  4. 4.Department of MicrobiologyGdańsk University of TechnologyGdańskPoland
  5. 5.Department of Poultry ScienceUniversity of AgricultureFasisalabadPakistan

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