Risk factors for foot and mouth disease seroprevalence in indigenous cattle in Southern Ethiopia: the effect of production system
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- Megersa, B., Beyene, B., Abunna, F. et al. Trop Anim Health Prod (2009) 41: 891. doi:10.1007/s11250-008-9276-5
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A serological survey to investigate risk factors for Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) occurrence was conducted between October 2007 and March 2008 in Southern Ethiopia. Antibodies against non-structural protein of FMD virus (using 3abc ELISA) were measured as indicator of exposure to the virus. The seroprevalence of FMD was 9.5% (95%CI = 7.7 – 11.3, n = 1020) and 48.1% (95% CI = 36.8 – 59.4%, n = 79), respectively at animal and herd levels. Within herd seropositivity was ranged from 6.7 to 46.7% with 18.6% (95%CI = 14.6 – 22.5%) risk of being seropositive for an animal in positive herds. The most important herd level risk factors identified were pastoral system (OR = 16.3, 95% CI = 2.0 -133.7) compared to sedentary, low altitude (OR = 7.5, 95% CI 1.4 -40.7) compared to high altitude, keeping cattle with small ruminants (OR = 5.1, 95% CI 1.0 -25.2) when compared to one species or alone. Seroprevalence was significantly higher (P <0.05) in South Omo than Sidama and Gamo Gofa areas. The odds of seropositivity were 2.8 and 2.3 times higher in the adult (>4 years) and maturing animals (3–4 years) compared to young age category (<3 years). Both multivariable logistic and negative binomial regressions depicted that production system was the major risk factor for FMD seropositivity. Consequently, higher prevalence of FMD in pastoral system where animals are an integral part of life has substantial livelihood and economic implications, which signifies the need for devising control measures.