Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 41, Issue 5, pp 723–729 | Cite as

Effectiveness of Rose Bengal test and fluorescence polarization assay in the diagnosis of Brucella spp. infections in free range cattle reared in endemic areas in Zambia

  • J. B. Muma
  • A. Lund
  • K. Nielsen
  • G. Matope
  • M. Munyeme
  • K. Mwacalimba
  • E. Skjerve
Original Paper

Abstract

The effectiveness of Rose Bengal test (RBT) and fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) in diagnosing cattle brucellosis in endemic areas was assessed and RBT and FPA test agreement was compared (n = 319). The sensitivity of RBT and FPA in detecting low Brucella titres were evaluated in paired sera (n = 34). A logistic regression model was constructed to predict cattle test result in FPA using RBT as the main predictor and incorporating bio-data and animal history. There was 79.3% agreement between the RBT and FPA (Kappa = 0.59; Std error = 0.05; p = 0.000) and a high correspondence between high RBT scores and positive FPA results suggesting that sera with high RBT score may not require confirmation with tests such as competitive-ELISA or CFT. High FPA cut-off points were more likely to miss animals with low antibody titres. The RBT had a reduced ability in detecting low antibody titres compared to the FPA. FPA test interpretation was improved if a priori information, such as sex and age was used. Under the challenging disease surveillance conditions prevailing in rural Africa, field-testing methods that are sensitive and specific; allow single animal contact, low technical skills in data interpretation are suitable.

Keywords

Cattle Brucellosis Endemic area FPA RBT Zambia 

Abbreviations

CFT

Complement fixation test

ELISA

Enzyme linked immunossorbent assay

FPA

Fluorescence polarization assay

mP

Mili-polarisation units

RBT

Rose Bengal test

Se

Sensitivity

Sp

Specificity

References

  1. Alton, G.G., Jones, L.M. and Pietz, D., 1975. Laboratory Techniques in Brucellosis, Geneva, 63–34Google Scholar
  2. Alton, G.G., Jones, L.M., Angus, R.D. and Verger, J.M., 1988. Techniques for the brucellosis laboratory (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Paris, France), 81–134Google Scholar
  3. Anon, 2000. Annual report of the Department of Research and Specialist Services (Government Printers, Lusaka Zambia).Google Scholar
  4. Dooho, I., Martin, W. and Stryhn, H., 2003. Veterinary Epidemiologic Research, (AVC Inc., Charlottetown).Google Scholar
  5. Duran-Ferrer, M., Leon, L., Nielsen, K., Caporale, V., Mendoza, J., Osuna, A., Perales, A., Smith, P., De-Frutos, C., Gomez-Martin, B., Lucas, A., Chico, R., Delgado, O.D., Escabias, J.C., Arrogante, L., Diaz-Parra, R. and Garrido, F., 2004. Antibody response and antigen-specific gamma-interferon profiles of vaccinated and unvaccinated pregnant sheep experimentally infected with Brucella melitensis. Veterinary Microbiology, 100, 219–231. doi:10.1016/j.vetmic.2004.02.008 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Kiel, F.W. and Khan, M.Y., 1987. Analysis of 506 consecutive positive serologic tests for brucellosis in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 25, 1384–1387PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. McDermott, J.J., and Arimi, S.M., 2002. Brucellosis in sub-Saharan Africa: epidemiology, control and impact. Veterinary Microbiology, 90, 111–134. doi:10.1016/S0378-1135(02)00249-3 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Minas, A., Stournara, A., Minas, M., Stack, J., Petridou, E., Christodoulopoulos, G., and Krikelis, V., 2007. Validation of a fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) performed in microplates and comparison with other tests used for diagnosing B. melitensis infection in sheep and goats. Journal of Immunological Methods, 320, 94–103. doi:10.1016/j.jim.2006.12.008 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Montagnaro, S., Longo, M., Mallardo, K., Pisanelli, G., De Martino, L., Fusco, G., Baldi, L., Pagnini, U. and Iovane, G., 2008. Evaluation of a fluorescence polarization assay for the detection of serum antibodies to Brucella abortus in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology (In press) Google Scholar
  10. Muma, J.B., Samui, K.L., Siamudaala, V.M., Oloya, J., Matope, G., Omer, M.K., Munyeme, M., Mubita, C. and Skjerve, E., 2006. Prevalence of antibodies to Brucella spp. and individual risk factors in traditional cattle, goats and sheep reared in the livestock-wildlife interface areas of Zambia. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 38, 195–206. doi:10.1007/s11250-006-4320-9 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Muma, J.B., Toft, N., Oloya, J., Lund, A., Nielsen, K., Samui, K. and Skjerve, E., 2007. Evaluation of three serological tests for brucellosis in naturally infected cattle using latent class analysis. Veterinary Microbiology, 125, 187–192. doi:10.1016/j.vetmic.2007.05.012 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Nielsen, K., 2002. Diagnosis of brucellosis by serology. Veterinary Microbiology, 90, 447–459. doi:10.1016/S0378-1135(02)00229-8 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Nielsen, K. and Gall, D., 2001. Fluorescence polarization assay for the diagnosis of brucellosis: A review. Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry, 22, 183–201. doi:10.1081/IAS-100104705 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Nielsen, K., Gall, D., Jolley, M., Leishman, G., Balsevicius, S., Smith, P., Nicoletti, P. and Thomas, F., 1996a. A homogeneous fluorescence polarization assay for detection of antibody to Brucella abortus. Journal of Immunological Methods, 195, 161–168. doi:10.1016/0022-1759(96)00116-0 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Nielsen, K.H., Kelly, L., Gall, D., Balsevicius, S., Bosse, J., Nicoletti, P. and Kelly, W., 1996b. Comparison of enzyme immunoassays for the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 26, 17–32. doi:10.1016/0167-5877(95)00513-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Nielsen, K., Gall, D., Lin, M., Massangill, C., Samartino, L., Perez, B., Coats, M., Hennager, S., Dajer, A., Nicoletti, P. and Thomas, F., 1998. Diagnosis of bovine brucellosis using a homogeneous fluorescence polarization assay. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 66, 321–329. doi:10.1016/S0165-2427(98)00195-0 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Nielsen, K., Gall, D., Smith, P., Vigliocco, A., Perez, B., Samartino, L., Nicoletti, P., Dajer, A., Elzer, P. and Enright, F., 1999. Validation of the fluorescence polarization assay as a serological test for the presumptive diagnosis of porcine brucellosis. Veterinary Microbiology, 68, 245–253. doi:10.1016/S0378-1135(99)00077-2 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Nielsen, K., Lin, M., Gall, D. and Jolley, M., 2000. Fluorescence polarization immunoassay: detection of antibody to Brucella abortus. Methods-a Companion to Methods in Enzymology, 22, 71–76. doi:10.1006/meth.2000.1038 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Nielsen, K., Gall, D., Bermudez, R., Renteria, T., Moreno, F., Corral, A., Monroy, O., Monge, F., Smith, P., Widdison, J., Mardrueno, M., Calderon, N., Guerrero, R., Tinoco, R., Osuna, J. and Kelly, W., 2002. Field trial of the brucellosis fluorescence polarization assay. Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry, 23, 307–316. doi:10.1081/IAS-120013030 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. OIE, 2004. Manual of the Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial animals, Vol 1, 5 Edition, (Office International Des Epizooties, Paris, France), 409–438Google Scholar
  21. Omer, M.K., Skjerve, E., MacMillan, A.P. and Woldehiwet, Z., 2001. Comparison of three serological tests in the diagnosis of Brucella infection in unvaccinated cattle in Eritrea. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 48, 215–222. doi:10.1016/S0167-5877(00)00185-9 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Perry, B.D., Mwanaumo, B., Schels, H.F., Eicher, E. and Zaman, M.R., 1984. A study of health and productivity of traditionally managed cattle in Zambia. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 2, 633–653. doi:10.1016/0167-5877(84)90011-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ramirez-Pfeiffer, C., Nielsen, K., Smith, P., Marin-Ricalde, F., Rodriguez-Padilla, C. and Gomez-Flores, R., 2007. Application of the fluorescence polarization assay for detection of caprine antibodies to Brucella melitensis in areas of high prevalence and widespread vaccination. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, 14, 299–303. doi:10.1128/CVI.00350-06 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. B. Muma
    • 1
  • A. Lund
    • 2
  • K. Nielsen
    • 3
  • G. Matope
    • 4
  • M. Munyeme
    • 1
  • K. Mwacalimba
    • 1
  • E. Skjerve
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Disease Control, School of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of ZambiaLusakaZambia
  2. 2.National Veterinary InstituteOsloNorway
  3. 3.Animal Disease Research, InstituteCanada Food Inspection AgencyNepeanCanada
  4. 4.Department of Paraclinical Veterinary Studies, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of ZimbabweHarareZimbabwe
  5. 5.Department of Food Safety and Infection BiologyNorwegian School of Veterinary ScienceOsloNorway

Personalised recommendations