Advertisement

Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 41, Issue 4, pp 477–484 | Cite as

LaSota vaccination may not protect against the lesions of velogenic newcastle disease in chickens

  • W. S. EzemaEmail author
  • J. O. A. Okoye
  • J. A. Nwanta
Original Paper

Abstract

Two groups of six weeks old cockerels comprising 40 immunized and 40 non-immunized birds were inoculated intramuscularly with VGF-1, which is a local Nigerian strain of velogenic Newcastle disease virus (VNDV). Immunized birds did not show any clinical signs except significant loss (p < 0.05) in body weight on days 5 and 20 post inoculation (PI). But the non-immunized birds showed clinical signs of disease characterized by anorexia and drowsiness from day 2 PI. These were followed on day 3 PI by depression, diarrhoea, opisthotonus, weight loss (p < 0.05) and high mortalities (96.9%). Both the immunized and non-immunized groups showed severe atrophy of the bursa, spleen and thymus. Histopathological section of these lymphoid organs showed necrosis and depletion of lymphocytes. Both the gross and microscopic lesions were more severe in the non-immunized birds. Marked ballooning degeneration was observed in the bursal follicles of the non-immunized birds. This lesion has not been described earlier for any other disease and could be diagnostic for VND. Our results also showed that VND can cause marked atrophy of the lymphoid organs, which may lead to immunosupression without the characteristic signs of Newcastle disease (ND) in vaccinated chickens. This no doubt emphasizes the limitation of vaccination as a biosecurity measure in poultry industry.

Keywords

Chickens Experimental infection LaSota vaccination Pathology Velogenic Newcastle disease virus 

Abbreviations

ELD50

median embryo lethal dose or dose of virus that is lethal to 50% of the birds

ELISA

enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

HA

haemagglutination

HI

haemagglutination inhibition

ND

Newcastle disease

PBS

phosphate buffered saline

PI

post inoculation

SD

standard deviation

VND

velogenic Newcastle disease

VNDV

velogenic Newcastle disease virus

References

  1. Adu, F. D., Oyejide, O. and Ikede, B O., 1985. Characterization of Nigerian strains of Newcastle disease virus. Avian Diseases, 29, 829–831 doi: 10.2307/1590674 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexander, D. J., Pearsons, G., and Marshall, R., 1984. Infection of fowls with Newcastle disease virus by food contaminated with pigeon faeces. Veterinary Record, 115 601–602PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Allan, W. H. and Guogh, D. E., 1974. A standard haemagglutination inhibition test for Newcastle disease. 1. A comparison of macro and micro methods Veterinary Record, 95, 120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Awan, M. A., Otte, M. J., and James, A. D., 1994. The epidemiology of Newcastle disease in rural poultry: A review. Avian Pathology, 23, 405–423 doi: 10.1080/03079459408419012 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beard, C. W., 1989. Serological procedures. In: Purchase HG, Arp LH, Domermuth CH, Pearson JE, Eds., A Laboratory Manual for Isolation and Identification of Avian Pathogens. American Association of Avian Pathologists, Kenneth Square, PA, USA, 192–200.Google Scholar
  6. Bell, J.G., 1991. Vaccination of African village poultry against Newcastle disease. In: Demey, F Pandey VS, Eds. Newcastle Disease Vaccination of Village Poultry in Africa and Asia. Proceedings of Seminar held on 13 and 14 February 1991, Antwerp, pp 3–8.Google Scholar
  7. Bell, G., 1992. Newcastle disease in village chickens in North, West and Central Africa. In: Spradbrow PD, Ed. Newcastle Disease in Village Chickens, Control with Thermo stable Oral Vaccines. Proceedings, International Workshop held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 6–10 October 1991. Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR), Canberra, pp 142–143, 18. 6, 37–42Google Scholar
  8. Bell, J. G. and Moulous, S., 1998. A reservoir of virulent Newcastle disease virus in village chicken flocks. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 6, 37–42 doi: 10.1016/0167–5877(88)90024–4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Duncan, D. 1965. Multiple range and multiple t-tests. Biometrics, 1–11.Google Scholar
  10. Echeonwu, G. O. N., Iroegbu, C. U. and Emeruwa, A. C., 1993. Recovery of velogenic Newcastle disease virus from dead and healthy free-roaming birds in Nigeria. Avian Pathology, 22, 383–387 doi: 10.1080/03079459308418928 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ezeokoli, C. D., Umoh, J. U., Adesuyin, A. A. and Abdu, P., 1994. Prevalence of Newcastle disease virus antibodies in local and exotic chicken under different management systems in Nigeria. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 32, 253–257.Google Scholar
  12. Hamid, H., Cabell, R. S. T. and Parede, L. H., 1991. Studies of the pathology of Velogenic Newcastle disease: Virus infection in non-immune and immune birds. Avian Pathology, 20, 561–575 doi: 10.1080/03079459108418796 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hills, D.H., Davis, O. S. and Wilde, J. K. H., 1997. A retrospective study of Newcastle disease in Ibadan. In: Proceedings, Nigerian Society for Animal Production, 23–27 March 1997, ABU Zaria, Nigeria.Google Scholar
  14. Majiyagbe, K.A. and Nawathe, D.R., 1981. Isolation of virulent Newcastle disease virus from apparently normal ducks in Vom. Veterinary Record, 180, 10.Google Scholar
  15. Okoye, J. O. A., Agu A.O., Chineme, C.N. and Echeonwu, G.O.N., 2000. Pathological characterization in chickens of a velogenic Newcastle disease virus isolated from Guinea fowl. Revue d'Elevage et de Medecine Veterinaries des Pays Tropicaux, 53, 325–330Google Scholar
  16. Okoye, J.O. A., Asuzu, I.U and Gugnani, H. C., 1998. Paralysis and lameness associated with aflatoxicosis in broilers, Avian Pathology, 17, 731–734 doi: 10.1080/03079458808436490 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Okoye, J. O. A., Ezema, W. and Agoha, J., 1993. Naturally occurring clinical reticuloendotheliosis in turkeys and chickens. Avian Pathology, 22, 237–244 doi: 10.1080/03079459308418917 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Okoye, J.O.A. and Uzokwu, M., 1990. Pathogenesis of infectious bursal disease in embrayonally bursectomised chickens. Avian Pathology, 19, 555–569 doi: 10.1080/03079459008418708 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Olabode, A.O., Shidali, N. N. and Larmorde, A.G., 1991. Epidemiology of Newcastle disease in Nigeria. In: Rweyemamu, M.M., Palya, V., Win, T. Sylia, D. Eds. Newcastle Disease Vaccines for Rural Africa. Proceedings of a Workshop held at Pan African Veterinary Vaccine Centre (PANVAC) Debre Zeit, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 22–26 April 1991 pp 53–59.Google Scholar
  20. Orajaka, L. J. E., Adene, D. F., Anene, B. M. and Onuoha, E.A., 1999. Seroprevalence of Newcastle disease in local chickens from Southeast derived savannah zone of Nigeria. Revue d'Elevage et de Medecine Veterinaries des Pays Tropicaux, 52, 185–188.Google Scholar
  21. Oyewola, K.A., Ogundipe, G.A. T. and Durojaiye, O. A., 1996. Seroprevalence of Gumboro and Newcastle disease in local chickens in Ibadan, Nigeria. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 34, 57–59.Google Scholar
  22. Reed, L.J. and Muench, H., 1938. A single method for estimating fifty percent end points. American Journal of Hygiene, 27, 493–497Google Scholar
  23. Saidu, L., Nwangu, B. I. and Otchere, E. O., 1994. Disease of Nigerian indigenous chicken. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 42, 17–28.Google Scholar
  24. Spradbrow, P. B., 1992. Newcastle Disease in Village Chickens, Control with Thermos table Oral Vaccines. Canberra, Australia, ACIAR.Google Scholar
  25. Wan, H., Chen, L., Wu, L. and Liu, X., 2004. Newcastle disease in geese: natural and experimental infection. Avian Pathology. 33, 216–221 doi: 10.1080/0307945042000195803 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Veterinary Pathology and MicrobiologyUniversity of NigeriaNsukkaNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine and Public HealthUniversity of NigeriaNsukkaNigeria

Personalised recommendations