Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 40, Issue 1, pp 47–53

Studies on correlations among parasitaemia and some hemolytic indices in two tropical diseases (theileriosis and anaplasmosis) in Fars province of Iran

  • S. Nazifi
  • S. M. Razavi
  • M. Mansourian
  • B. Nikahval
  • M. Moghaddam
Original Paper


This study was carried out in two observational clinical studies. Study 1 comprised 50 adult crossbred cattle naturally infected by Theileria annulata. Infected animals were divided into 4 subgroups with different parasitaemia (<1%, 1–3%, 3–5% and >5%). Study 2 comprised 20 adult crossbred cattle naturally infected by Anaplasma marginale. Infected animals were divided into 3 subgroups with different parasitaemia (<10%, 10–20% and 20–30%). In study 1, a significant negative correlation (P < 0.001) was observed between parasitaemia and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Positive correlations (P < 0.001) were observed between parasitaemia and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and mean corpuscular fragility (MCF). In study 2 positive correlations (P < 0.05) were observed among parasitaemia and MCF and LDH activity. SOD activity had a negative correlation with parasitaemia in cattle with parasitaemia lower than 10% but no significant correlation (P > 0.05) was observed between SOD activity and parasitaemia in cattle with 10–20 and 20–30% parasitaemia. In comparison of both studies we came to the conclusion that in theileriosis as the severity of disease increased the anaemia, MCF and LDH activity increased and SOD activity decreased at any parasitaemia, but in anaplasmosis the anaemia, MCF and LDH activity increased at any parasitaemia but SOD activity decreased only in early but not in advanced stages of disease.


Theileriosis Anaplasmosis Parasitaemia Haemolysis Superoxide dismutase activity 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ajayi, S.A., Wilson, A.J. and Campbell, R.S., 1978. Experimental bovine anaplasmosis: Clinico-pathological and nutritional studies. Research in Veterinary Science 25, 76–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Asri Rezaei, S. and Dalir-Naghadeh, B., 2006. Evaluation of antioxidant status and oxidative stress in cattle naturally infected with Theileria annulata. Veterinary Parasitology 142, 179–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aulakh, R.S., Gill, J.P.S., Johal, H.S., Juyal, P.D. and Joshi, D.V., 1998. Haematological observations in Theileria annulata infected cross bred cattle and their treatment with buparvaquone. Journal of Research, Punjab Agricultural University 35, 66–88Google Scholar
  4. Beyer, W., Imlay, J. and Fridovich, I., 1991. Superoxide dismutases. Progressed Nucleic Acid Research 40,221–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bram, R.A., 1983. Tick-borne livestock diseases and their vectors: the global problem. In: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, FAO Animal Production and Health Paper No. 36,(Food and Agricultural Organisation, Rome) 7–11Google Scholar
  6. Burtis, C.A. and Ashwood, E.R., 1994. Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry, 2nd edn, (W.B. Saunders Com, Philadelphia) 735–888Google Scholar
  7. Chanarin, I., 1989. Laboratory Haematology: An Account of Laboratory Techniques.1st edn, (Churchill Livingstone Publisher, London) 13–14Google Scholar
  8. Edwards, C.J. and Fuller, J., 1996. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes. Comparative Haematology International 6, 24–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ewing, S.A., 1981. Transmission of Anaplasma marginale by arthropods. In: Proceedings of the 7th National Anaplasmosis Conference, (Mississippi State University, MS. USA) 395–423Google Scholar
  10. Forsyth, L.M.G., Jackson, L.A., Wilkie, G., Sanderson, A., Brown, C.G.D. and Preston, P.M., 1997. Bovine cells infected in vivo with Theileria annulata express CD11b, the C3bi complement receptor. Veterinary Research Communications 21, 249–263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gill. B.S., Bhattacharyulu, Y. and Kaur, D., 1977. Symptoms and pathology of experimental bovine tropical theileriosis (Theileria annulata infection). Annales de Parasitologie 52, 597–608Google Scholar
  12. Glass, G.A. and Gershon, D., 1984. Decreased enzymatic protection and increased sensitivity to oxidative damage in erythrocytes as a function of cell and donor aging. Biochemistry Journal 218, 513–537Google Scholar
  13. Grewal, A., Ahuja, C.S., Singha, S.P.S. and Chaudhary, K.C., 2005. Status of lipid peroxidation, some antioxidant enzymes and erythrocyte fragility of crossbred cattle naturally infected with Theileria annulata. Veterinary Research Communications 29, 387–394PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Halliwell, B. and Gutteridge, J.M.C., 1999.Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine, 3rd edn, (Oxford University Press, New York) 936Google Scholar
  15. Hashemi-Fesharki, R., 1988. Control of Theileria annulata in Iran. Parasitology Today 4, 36–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hooshmand-Rad, P., 1976. The pathogenesis of anaemia in Theileria annulata infection. Research in Veterinary Science 20, 324–329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Jain, N.C., 1986. Schalm’s Veterinary Hematology, 4th edn, (Lea & Febiger Publication, Philadelphia) 381–383Google Scholar
  18. Jain, N.C., 1993. Essentials of Veterinary Hematology, 1st edn, (Lea & Febiger Publication, Philadelphia) 589–596Google Scholar
  19. Kieser, S.T., Eriks, I.S. and Palmer, G. H., 1990. Cyclic rickettsemia during persistent Anaplasma marginale infection of cattle. Infectious Immunology 58, 1117–1119Google Scholar
  20. Knight, J.A., 1995. Diseases related to oxygen-derived free radicals. Annuals of Clinical Laboratories 25, 111–121Google Scholar
  21. Kuttler, L.K., 1984.Anaplasma infections in wild and domestic ruminants: A review. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 20, 12–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Latimer, K.S., Mahaffey, E.A. and Prasse, K.W., 2003. Veterinary Laboratory Medicine Clinical pathology 4th edn, (Iowa State Press, Iowa.) 3–45, 260–270Google Scholar
  23. Losos, G.J., 1986. Anaplasmosis.In: Losos, G.J. (Ed.), Infectious Tropical Diseases of Domestic Animals. (Longman Press, Essex, United Kingdom.) 742–795Google Scholar
  24. Minjauw, B. and Mcleod, A., 2003. Tick-borne disease and poverty. The impact of ticks and tick-borne disease on the livelihoods of small-scale and marginal livestock owners in India and eastern and southern Africa. Research report, DFID Animal Health Programme, Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, UKGoogle Scholar
  25. More, T., Reddy, G.R., Sharma, S.P. and Singh, L.N., 1989. Enzymes of oxidant defense system of leukocytes and erythrocytes in bovine anaplasmosis. Veterinary Parasitology 31, 333–337PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. OIE (Office International des Epizooties website), 2003. Terrestrial Animal Health Code. Bovine Anaplasmosis, Chapters 2.3.7, accessed on July 28.
  27. Omer, O.H., El-Malik, K.H., Mahmoud, O.M., Haroun, E.M., Hawas, A., Sweeney, D. and Magzoub, M., 2002. Haematological profiles in purebred cattle naturally infected with Theileria annulata in Saudi Arabia. Veterinary Parasitology 107, 161–168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Omer, O.H., El-Malik, K.H., Magzoub, M., Mahmoud, O.M., Haroun, E.M., Hawas, A. and Omar, H.M., 2003a. Biochemical profiles in Friesian cattle naturally infected with Theileria annulata in Saudi Arabia, Veterinary Research Communications 27, 15–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Omer, O.H., Haroun, E.M., Mahmoud, O.M., Abdel-Magied, E.M., El-Malik, K.H. and Magzoub, M., 2003b. Parasitological and clinicopathological profiles in Friesian cattle naturally infected with Theileria annulata in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Veterinary Medicine B 50, 200–203Google Scholar
  30. Razmi, G.R., Dastjerdi, K., Hosseini, H., Naghibi, A., Barati, F. and Aslani, M.R., 2006. An epidemiological study on Anaplasma infection in cattle, sheep and goats in Mashhad suburbs, Khorasan province, Iran. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1078, 479–481PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ristic, M., 1980. Anaplasmosis. Bovine Medicine and Surgery, Vol. I. (American Veterinary Publications Inc., Santa Barbara) 324–348Google Scholar
  32. Schroeder, W.F. and Ristic, N., 1965. Anaplasmosis. An analysis of autoantigens in infected and normal bovine erythrocytes. American Journal of Veterinary Research 26, 679–689PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Schroeder, W.F. and Ristic, N., 1968. Blood serum factors associated with erythrophagocytosis in calves with anaplasmosis. American Journal of Veterinary Research 29, 1991–1995PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Shiono, H., Yagi, Y., Chikayama, Y., Miyazaki, S. and Nakamura, I., 2003a. The influence of oxidative bursts of phagocytes on red blood cell oxidation in anemic cattle infected with Theileria sergenti. Free Radical Research 37, 1181–1189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Shiono, H., Yagi, Y., Chikayama, Y., Miyazaki, S. and Nakamura, I., 2003b. Oxidative damage and phosphatidylserine expression of red blood cells in cattle experimentally infected with Theileria sergenti. Parasitology Research 89, 228–234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Shiono, H., Yagi, Y., Kumar, A., Yamanaka, M. and Chikayama, Y., 2004. Accelerated binding of autoantibody to red blood cells with increasing anemia in cattle experimentally infected with Theileria sergenti. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series B 51, 39–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Taylor, S.M., Hunter A.G., Andrew, A.H., Blowey, R.W., Boyd, H. and Eddy, R.G., 1992, Tick and arthropod-borne diseases. In: Bovine medicine, diseases and husbandry of cattle, (Blackwell Scientific Publications Inc., 3 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA) 722–757Google Scholar
  38. Uilenberg, G., 1981. Theilerial Species of Domestic Livestock. In: Irvin, A.D., Cunningham, M.P., Young, A.S. (Eds.), Advances in the Control of Theileriosis. Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, 4–37Google Scholar
  39. Yagi, Y., Furuuchi, S., Takahashi, H. and Koyama, H., 1989. Abnormality of osmotic fragility and morphological disorder of bovine erythrocytes infected with Theileria sergenti. Nippon Juigaku Zasshi 51, 389–395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Young, A.S., 1981. The Epidemiology of Theileriosis in East Africa. In: Irvin, A.D., Cunningham, M.P., Young, A.S. (Eds.), Advances in the Control of Theileriosis. Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, 38–55Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Nazifi
    • 1
  • S. M. Razavi
    • 2
  • M. Mansourian
    • 2
  • B. Nikahval
    • 1
  • M. Moghaddam
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary MedicineShiraz UniversityShirazIran
  2. 2.Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary MedicineShiraz UniversityShirazIran

Personalised recommendations