Tribology Letters

, 67:8 | Cite as

Effects of Normal Load on the Coefficient of Friction by Microscratch Test of Copper with a Spherical Indenter

  • Chenghui Gao
  • Ming LiuEmail author
Original Paper


A Rockwell C 120° diamond indenter with a spherical tip radius of 100 µm was used to measure the coefficient of friction by microscratch test under different normal loads. The measured friction coefficient was found to increase with normal load, which was rationalised by a geometrical intersection model. Although plastic deformation increases with normal load, its contribution into the total deformation becomes smaller with the increase in normal load. Elastic deformation predominates in the total deformation under large normal loads. It is the adhesion shear stress over the contact area that causes plastic deformation. Lateral force was found to be proportional to penetration depth, especially under large normal loads when elastic deformation predominated the deformation, with the proportionality representing deformation or shearing resistant toughness.


Microscratch test Spherical indenter The coefficient of friction Effects of normal load Scratch-induced deformation 



This project is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51705082 and 51875106) and Fujian Provincial Collaborative Innovation Center for High-end Equipment Manufacturing (No. 0020-50006103). M. Liu is also grateful for the support from Fujian Provincial Minjiang Scholar Program (N0. 0020-510486).


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Mechanical Engineering and AutomationFuzhou UniversityFuzhouPeople’s Republic of China

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