Tribology Letters

, 61:19 | Cite as

Simultaneous Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction, Near-Infrared, and Visible In Situ Observation of Scuffing Process of Steel in Sliding Contact

  • Kazuyuki YagiEmail author
  • Seiji Kajita
  • Takashi Izumi
  • Jun Koyamachi
  • Mamoru Tohyama
  • Koji Saito
  • Joichi Sugimura
Original Paper


This paper describes an in situ observation of the scuffing process of steel by means of a newly developed system that employs a combination of two-dimensional detector synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD), a near-infrared CCD array, and a visible CCD array. In the demonstration of the application of the system, a contact area was produced between a fixed steel pin and a rotating sapphire ring, and the XRD ring, visible image, and near-infrared image of the steel surface of the contact area were synchronously captured at 30 fps under dry conditions. The system visually captured the wear behaviour, significant instantaneous temperature increase, and variation of the grain structure of the steel within the contact area during the scuffing process. The overall wear process was observed to comprise several stages, which were identified with first micro-scuffing, normal wear, second micro-scuffing, and macro-scuffing, respectively. Intermittent plastic flow was observed to occur numerous times with instantaneous heat generation within the contact area during the micro-scuffing processes. The instantaneous heat generation produced an adiabatic boundary condition, which increased the temperature to over 1000°C. The rapid temperature increase and decrease in the contact area also caused repeated phase transformation and reversion between martensite and austenite. The in situ XRD spectrum indicated that the repeated phase transformation and reversion created a definite surface layer that initiated the macro-scuffing process, which caused catastrophic plastic flow.


In situ XRD Synchrotron Near-infrared Scuffing Temperature Austenite Plastic flow Dynamic recrystallisation process 



The authors express their gratitude to Dr. Y. Hayashi of Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc., for his assistance with the acquisition of the XRD data. The test of this study was conducted in the Toyota beamline BL33XU at SPring-8 with the approval of the Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI) (Proposal No. 2013B7021).


  1. 1.
    Dyson, A.: Scuffing—a review. Tribol. Int. 8(2), 77–87 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dyson, A.: Scuffing—a review: part 2: the mechanism of scuffing. Tribol. Int. 8(3), 117–122 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Scott, D., Smith, A.I., Tait, J., Tremain, G.R.: Materials and metallurgical aspects of piston ring scuffing —a literature survey. Wear 33(2), 293–315 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ludema, K.C.: A review of scuffing and running-in of lubricated surfaces, with asperities and oxides in perspective. Wear 100(1–3), 315–331 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bowman, W.F., Stachowiak, G.W.: A review of scuffing models. Tribol. Lett. 2(2), 113–131 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Memorandum on definitions, symbols and units. In: Proceedings of the Conference on Lubrication and Wear, vol. 4. The Institution of Mechanical Engineers, London (1957) Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Glossary of Terms and Definitions in the Field of Friction Wear and Lubrication = Tribology =, Research Group on Wear of Engineering Materials, vol. 53. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris (1969)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hardy, W.B., Hardy, J.K.: Note on static friction and on the lubricating properties of certain chemical substances. Philos. Mag. Ser. 38(223), 32–48 (1919)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bowden, F.P., Tabor, D.: The seizure of metals. Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. 160, 380–383 (1949)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Semenov, A.P.: The phenomenon of seizure and its investigation. Wear 4(1), 1–9 (1960)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mishina, H., Sasada, T.: Observation of micro-structure in seized portion and mechanism of seizure. Trans. ASME J. Tribol. 108, 28–133 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Campany, R.G., Wilson, R.W.: The metallurgy of scoring and scuffing failure. In: Dowson, D., Taylor, C.M., Godet, M., Berthe, D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 9th Leeds-Lyon Symposium on Tribology, Tribology of Reciprocating Engines, pp. 201–211. Butterworth & Co Ltd, Guildford (1983)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wang, Y., Tian, T.: Exploring operation mechanisms of the flexible metal-to-metal face seal: part II—scoring and leakage analysis. Tribol. Trans. 53(5), 649–657 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ling, F.F., Saibel, E.: Thermal aspects of galling of dry metallic surfaces in sliding contact. Wear 1(2), 80–91 (1957/58)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rabinowicz, E.: Friction seizure and galling seizure. Wear 25(3), 357–363 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ohmori, T., Kitamura, K., Danno, A., Kawamura, M.: Evaluation of galling prevention properties of cold-forging oils by ball penetration test. Wear 155(1), 183–192 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Blok, H.: The flash temperature concept. Wear 6(6), 483–494 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fein, R.S.: Transition temperatures with four ball machine. ASLE Trans. 3(1), 34–39 (1960)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fein, R.S.: Effects of lubricants on transition temperature. ASLE Trans. 8(1), 59–68 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bell, J.C., Dyson, A.: The effect of some operating factors on the scuffing of hardened steel discs. In: Proceedings of Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication 1972 Symposium, pp. 61–67. The Institution of Mechanical Engineers, London (1972)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bell, J.C., Dyson, A., Hadley, J.W.: The effects of rolling and sliding speeds on the scuffing of lubricated steel discs. ASLE Trans. 18(1), 62–73 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Christensen, H.: Failure by collapse of hydrodynamic oil films. Wear 22(3), 359–366 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dyson, A.: The failure of elastohydrodynamic lubrication of circumferentially ground discs. Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. 190, 699–711 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Enthoven, J., Spikes, H.A.: Infrared and visual study of the mechanisms of scuffing. Tribol. Trans. 39(2), 441–447 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    O’Donoghue, J.P., Cameron, A.: Temperature at scuffing. Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. 180, Part 3B, 85–94 (1965–66)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cameron, A.: The role of chemistry in lubrication and scuffing. ASLE Trans. 23(4), 388–392 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cutiongco, E.C., Chung, Y.-W.: Prediction of scuffing failure based on competitive kinetics of oxide formation and removal: application to lubricated sliding of AISI 52100 steel on steel. Tribol. Trans. 37(3), 622–628 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Batchelor, A.W., Stachowiak, G.W.: Model of scuffing based on the vulnerability of an elastohydrodynamic oil film to chemical degradation catalyzed by the contacting surfaces. Tribol. Lett. 1(4), 349–365 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chandrasekaran, M., Batchelor, A.W., Loh, N.L.: Lubricated seizure of stainless observed by X-ray imaging. Wear 243, 68–75 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Burwell, J.T., Strang, C.D.: On the empirical law of adhesive wear. J. Appl. Phys. 23(1), 18–28 (1952)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yagi, K., Ebisu, Y., Sugimura, J., Kajita, S., Ohmori, T., Suzuki, A.: In situ observation of wear process before and during scuffing in sliding contact. Tribol. Lett. 43(3), 361–368 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Li, H., Yagi, K., Sugimura, J., Kajita, S., Shinyoshi, T.: Role of wear particles in scuffing initiation. Tribol. Online 8(5), 285–294 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rogers, M.D.: Metallographic characterisation of transformation phases on scuffed cast-iron diesel engine components. Tribology 2(2), 123–127 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rogers, M.D.: The mechanism of scuffing in diesel engines. Wear 15(2), 105–116 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Torrance, A.A., Cameron, A.: Surface transformations in scuffing. Wear 28(3), 299–311 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hershberger, J., Ajayi, O.O., Zhang, J., Yoon, H., Fenske, G.R.: Formation of austenite during scuffing failure of SAE 4340 steel. Wear 256(1–2), 159–167 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ajayi, O.O., Hersberger, J.G., Zhang, J., Yoon, H., Fenske, G.R.: Microstructural evolution during scuffing of hardened 4340 steel—implication for scuffing mechanism. Tribol. Int. 38(3), 277–282 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hershberger, J., Ajayi, O.O., Zhang, J., Yoon, H., Fenske, G.R.: Evidence of scuffing initiation by adiabatic shear instability. Wear 258(10), 1471–1478 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ajayi, O.O., Lorenzo-Martin, C., Erck, R.A., Fenske, G.R.: Scuffing mechanism of near-surface material during lubricated severe sliding contact. Wear 271(9–10), 1750–1753 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Han, J.M., Zhang, R., Ajayi, O.O., Barber, G.C., Zou, Q., Guessous, L., Schall, D., Alnabulsi, S.: Scuffing behaviour of gray iron and 1080 steel in reciprocating and rotational sliding. Wear 271(9–10), 1854–1861 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ajayi, O.O., Lorenzo-Martin, C., Erck, R.A., Fenske, G.R.: Analytical predictive modeling of scuffing initiation in metallic materials in sliding contact. Wear 301(1–2), 57–61 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Rogers, H.C.: Adiabatic plastic deformation. Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 9(1), 283–311 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kajita, S., Yagi, K., Izumi, T., Koyamachi, J., Tohyama, M., Saito, K., Sugimura, J.: In situ X-ray diffraction study of phase transformation of steel in scuffing process. Tribol. Lett. 57(1), 1–11 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hirose, Y.: TOYOTA beamline BL33XU. In: SPring-8 Research Frontiers 2009. p. 170 (2010)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Nonaka, T., Dohmae, K., Hayashi, Y., Araki, T., Yamaguchi, S., Nagai, Y., Hirose, Y., Tanaka, T., Kitamura, H., Uruga, T., Yamazaki, H., Yumoto, H., Ohashi, H., Goto, S.: Toyota Beamline (BL33XU) at SPring-8. In: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation (accepted)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Zerwekh, R.P., Wayman, C.M.: On the nature of the α → γ transformation in iron: a study of whiskers. Acta Metall. 13(2), 99–107 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Apple, C.A., Krauss, G.: The effect of heating rate on the martensite to austenite transformation in Fe-Ni-C alloys. Acta Metall. 20(7), 849–856 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ivanisenko, Y., MacLaren, I., Sauvage, X., Valievd, R.Z., Fecht, H.-J.: Shear-induced α → γ transformation in nanoscale Fe–C composite. Acta Mater. 54(6), 1659–1669 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Welsh, N.C.: Structural changes in rubbed steel surfaces. In: Institute of Mechanical Engineering Proceedings of Conference Lubrication and Wear. pp. 701–706 (1957)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kawamoto, M., Okabayashi, K.: Wear of cast iron in vacuum and the frictional hardened layer. Wear 17(2), 123–138 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Yoshida, H., Furuichi, H.: Wear behaviour of a 3% Si steel during repeated frictional contact. Wear 68(2), 219–228 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Griffiths, B.J., Furze, D.C.: Tribological advantages of white layers produced by machining. Trans. ASME J. Tribol. 109, 338–342 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Andrade, U., Meyers, M.A., Vecchio, K.S., Chokshi, A.H.: Dynamic recrystallization in high-strain, high-strain-rate plastic deformation of copper. Acta Metall. Mater. 42(9), 3183–3195 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Cullity, B.D.: Elements of X-ray diffraction, 2nd edn. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., Inc., Reading, Massachusetts (1978)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kazuyuki Yagi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Seiji Kajita
    • 2
  • Takashi Izumi
    • 2
  • Jun Koyamachi
    • 3
  • Mamoru Tohyama
    • 2
  • Koji Saito
    • 4
  • Joichi Sugimura
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (I2CNER)Kyushu UniversityFukuokaJapan
  2. 2.Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc.NagakuteJapan
  3. 3.Department of Hydrogen Energy Systems, Graduate School of EngineeringKyushu UniversityFukuokaJapan
  4. 4.Toyota Motor CorporationToyotaJapan

Personalised recommendations