Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Effects of the Tool Lubrication in Cold Forging

  • 328 Accesses

  • 6 Citations


Cold forging is an efficient process to produce workpieces in huge lots with superior properties. To further optimize these processes, the tribology must be improved. Therefore, many new lubricants exist, which can be used for moderate loads and single-stage operations. However, multistage operations are critical for adhesion and wear due to the high sliding distances. Thus, this paper presents the results from a cold forging tribometer and the Sliding Compression Test, which reveals the high impact of remaining lubricant on the tools to the friction coefficient. This remaining lubricant can decrease the friction coefficient. In addition to a conventional lubrication of the specimen, tests with lubricated tools have been conducted. These investigations have shown a further decrease in the coefficient of friction. Tests with lubricated rough tool surfaces helped to further optimize multistage cold forging operations since additional lubricant can be trapped on the tool surface. Finally, this paper presents an approach to avoid complex lubrication of the specimens by using lubrication of the tool.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

We’re sorry, something doesn't seem to be working properly.

Please try refreshing the page. If that doesn't work, please contact support so we can address the problem.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11


  1. 1.

    Altan, T., Ngaile, G., Shen, G.S.: Cold and Hot Forging. ASM International, Materials Park (2004)

  2. 2.

    Stupkiewicz, S., Zenon, M.: Phenomenological model of real contact area evolution with account for bulk plastic deformation in metal forming. Int. J. Plast. 19, 323–344 (2003)

  3. 3.

    Hemyari, D.: Methode zur Ermittlung von Konstruktivmodellen für Reibvorgänge in der Massivumformung bei erhöhten Temperaturen. Shaker Verlag, Aachen (1999). In German

  4. 4.

    Bay, N., Azushima, A., Groche, P., Ishibashi, I., Merklein, M., Morishita, M., et al.: Environmentally benign tribo-systems for metal forming. Ann. CIRP 59, 760–780 (2010)

  5. 5.

    Yoshida, H., Ito, S., Isogawa, S., Dohda, K.: Development of new tribo-meter for forging. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Technology of Plasticity 9, 217–222 (2008)

  6. 6.

    Bay, N.: The state of the art in cold forging lubrication. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 46, 19–40 (1994)

  7. 7.

    Groche, P., Müller, C., Stahlmann, J., Zang, S.: Mechanical conditions in bulk metal forming tribometers—Part one. Tribol. Int. 62, 223–231 (2013)

  8. 8.

    Wibom, O., Nielsen, J.A., Bay, N.: Einfluss der Werkzeugtemperatur auf Reibung und Schmierung beim Kaltmassivumformen von Stahl. Umformtechnik 29–2, 106–112 (1995). In German

  9. 9.

    Hu, Z.M., Dean, T.A.: A study of surface topography, friction and lubricants in metalforming. Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 40, 1637–1649 (2000)

  10. 10.

    Sagisaka, Y., Ishibashi, I., Nakamura, T., Hayakawa, K., Sasaoka, E.: Effects of surface roughness on lubrication performance of environmentally friendly lubricant for aluminum alloy cold forging. In: Proceedings of ICFG Plenary Meeting 44, 181–186 (2011)

  11. 11.

    Jung, K., Lee, H., Kang, S., Im, Y.: Effect of surface roughness on friction in cold forging. J. Achiev. Mater. Manuf. Eng. 31–2, 327–334 (2008)

  12. 12.

    Syahrullail, S., Azawadi, C.S.N., Abdul Kadir, M.R., Shafie, N.E.A.: The effect of tool surface roughness in cold work extrusion. J. Appl. Sci. 11(2), 367–372 (2011)

  13. 13.

    Geiger, M., Popp, U., Engel, U.: Tool life improvement by surface laser texturing. In: Proceedings of the International Conference “THE” Coatings in Manufacturing Engineering 4, 57–68 (2004)

  14. 14.

    Groche, P., Müller, C., Reuter, D.: Wasser senkt Reibung. Umformtechnik 4, 35–36 (2012). In German

  15. 15.

    Müller, C., Reuter, D., Groche, P.: Untersuchung des Witterungseinflusses auf tribologische Systeme der Kaltmassivumformung. Schmiede J. September, 42–45 (2012). In German

  16. 16.

    Rupp, M., Hemyari, D.: Saubere Massivumformung. Tagungsband Umformtechnisches Kolloquium Darmstadt (1997). In German

  17. 17.

    Raedt, J.W.: Grundlagen für das schmiermittelreduzierte Tribosystem bei der Kaltumformung des Einsatzstahles 16MnCr5., Aachen (2002). In German

  18. 18.

    Lange, K., Kammerer, M., Pöhlandt, K., Schöck, J.: Fließpressen. Springer, Berlin (2008). In German

  19. 19.

    Rausch, W.: Die Phosphatierung von Metallen. Leuze, Saulgau (1988). In German

  20. 20.

    Nittel, K.D.: Seifen und Festschmierstoffe für die Kaltmassivumformung., In: Wilfried J Bartz (Hg.): Handbuch der Tribologie und Schmierungstechnik, 13. Auflage, Expert Verlag, Renningen (2004), 328–339. In German

  21. 21.

    Nittel, K.D.: Schmierstoffe für die Kaltmassivumformung. Tribologie + Schmierungstechnik 5/2009, 37–41 (2009). In German

  22. 22.

    Ullmann, R.: Tribologie und Schmierung in der Massivumformung—Fließpressöle für die Kaltmassivumformung., In: Wilfried J Bartz (Hg.): Handbuch der Tribologie und Schmierungstechnik, 13. Auflage, Expert Verlag, Renningen (2004), 300–311. In German

  23. 23.

    Donofrio, J.: Zinc phosphating. Met. Finish. 97–5, 71–86 (1999)

  24. 24.

    Nyamangara, J.: Use of sequential extraction to evaluate zinc and copper in a soil amended with sewage sludge and inorganic metal salts. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 69–2, 135–141 (1998)

  25. 25.

    Baldy, C.: Recycling zinc phosphate sludge. Met. Finish. 94–11, 23–24 (1996)

  26. 26.

    Bay, N., Nakamura, T., Schmid, S.: Green Lubricants for Metal Forming. Proceedings of ICTMP, 5–28 (2010)

  27. 27.

    Olesen, P., Steenberg, T., Christensen, E., Bjerrum, N.: Electrolytic deposition of amorphous and crystalline zinc–calcium phosphates. J. Mater. Sci. 33, 3059–3063 (1998)

  28. 28.

    Arentoft, M., Bay, N., Tang, P., Jensen, J., Paldan, N., Mizushima, I. et al.: Deposited micro porous layer as lubricant carrier in metal forming. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Technology of Plasticity 9, 211–216 (2008)

  29. 29.

    Arentoft, M., Bay, N., Tang, P.T., Jensen, J.D.: A new lubricant carrier for metal forming. Ann. CIRP 58, 243–246 (2009)

  30. 30.

    Ceron, E., Bay, N., Arentoft, M., Tang, P.: Testing a new microporous lubricant carrier for cold forging. Steel Research International Special Edition, 240–244 (2011)

  31. 31.

    Schoppe, J.: Innovative cold massive forming on phosphate-free semi-finished products. In: Proceedings of New Developments in Forging Technology, 327–334 (2013)

  32. 32.

    Nittel, K.D., Bucci, B., Hellwig, R., Schoppe, J., Ostrowski, J., Zwez, P. et al.: Surface treatment—facts, trends and outlook for the cold forging industry. In: Proceedings of ICFG Plenary Meeting, 142–152 (2010)

  33. 33.

    Geiger, R.: Metal Flow in Combined Can Extrusion. Verlag Giradet, Essen (1976)

  34. 34.

    Buschhausen, A., Weinmann, K., Lee, Y.L., Altan, T.: Evaluation of lubrication and friction in cold forging using a double backward can extrusion process. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 33, 95–108 (1992)

  35. 35.

    Schrader, T., Shirgaokar, M., Altan, T.: A critical evaluation of the double cup extrusion test for selection of cold forging lubricants. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 189, 36–44 (2007)

  36. 36.

    Lahoti, G.D., Altan, T.: Ring and spike test for evaluating lubricants. Battelle Topical Report, 11 (1982)

  37. 37.

    Isogawa, K., Kimura, A., Tazawa, Y.: Proposal of an evaluating method on lubrication. Ann. CIRP 41–1, 262–266 (1992)

  38. 38.

    Kunogi, M.: A new method of cold extrusion. J. Sci. Res. Inst. Tokyo 50, 215–246 (1956)

  39. 39.

    Male, A.T., Cockcroft, A.G.: A method for the determination of the coefficient of friction of metals under conditions of bulk plastic deformation. J. Inst. Met. 2270, 38–46 (1964)

  40. 40.

    Rudkins, N.T., Hartley, P., Pillinger, I., Petty, D.: Friction modelling and experimental observations in hot ring compression tests. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 60, 349–353 (1996)

  41. 41.

    Groche, P., Stahlmann, J., Müller, C.: Mechanical conditions in bulk metal forming tribometers—Part two. Tribol. Int. 66, 345–351 (2013)

  42. 42.

    Groche, P., Stahlmann, J., Hartel, J., Köhler, M.: Hydrodynamic effects of macroscopic deterministic surface structures in cold forging processes. Tribol. Int. 42, 1173–1179 (2009)

  43. 43.

    Köhler, M., Stahlmann, J., Groche, P.: Effect of structured workpiece surfaces on friction in bulk metal forming. In: Proceedings of ICTMP, 24–26 (2007)

  44. 44.

    Stahlmann, J., Nicodemus, E., Sharma, S., Groche, P.: Surface roughness evolution in FEA simulations of bulk metal forming process. Wear 288, 78–87 (2012)

  45. 45.

    Ludwig, M., Stahlmann, J., Groche, P.: Advanced friction model for cold forging processes. In: Proceedings of Metal Forming, 1003–1006 (2012)

  46. 46.

    Stahlmann, J., Damavandi, K., Groche, P.: Erste Erfahrungen bei dem Einsatz einer Servomotorpresse in der Kaltmassivumformung. Tagungsband Jahrestreffen der Kaltmassivumformer (2009). In German

  47. 47.

    Zang, S., Müller, C., Groche, P.: Untersuchung des Einflusses der Relativgeschwindigkeit auf tribologische Systeme der Kaltmassivumformung. Tagungsband zur Tribologie-Fachtagung, 22/1 (2013). In German

  48. 48.

    Ostrowski, J., Hoffmeister, F., Falz, H.: Phosphatfreie Drahtbeschichtung: Eine umweltverträglicher Ansatz für die moderne Drahtbeschichtung. Tagungsband Jahrestreffen der Kaltmassivumformer (2013). In German

  49. 49.

    Müller, C., Keller, M., Groche, P.: Independent investigation of the contact normal stress and the surface enlargement with the Sliding Compression Test. In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Advances in Material and Processing (2013)

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Christoph Müller.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Groche, P., Müller, C. & Jahn, A. Effects of the Tool Lubrication in Cold Forging. Tribol Lett 53, 599–605 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11249-014-0297-0

Download citation


  • Cold forging
  • Sliding Compression Test
  • Tool lubrication
  • Surface roughness
  • Single-layer lubricants
  • Tribology