Advertisement

Tribology Letters

, Volume 50, Issue 3, pp 431–438 | Cite as

Initiation of Galling in Metal Forming: Differences Between Aluminium and Austenitic Stainless Steel Studied In Situ in the SEM

  • Jannica HeinrichsEmail author
  • Mikael Olsson
  • Staffan Jacobson
Original Paper

Abstract

High friction and transfer of work material to tool surfaces constitute important industrial problems in forming of many metals and alloys. However, it is very hard to gain a deeper understanding of these phenomena by studying real forming operations. In this paper, we have tried to gain fundamental understanding by avoiding as much as possible of the complexity of real forming. This has been realised by studying the friction and material transfer between well-defined tool material surfaces; uncoated and DLC-coated tool steel, and a needle shaped austenitic stainless steel tip, in situ in the SEM. The tool materials were tested in two conditions; well polished and well polished with local intentional scratches. It was found that work material was immediately transferred to the tool steel surface. When passing an intentional scratch, the local transfer was on a much larger scale, and the friction was higher, but the effect was mostly local. For the polished DLC-coated surface, almost no work material was transferred and the friction was low. An intentional scratch in the polished DLC surface barely influenced the galling behaviour. The present results are discussed in the light of previously published results from an analogous study with aluminium as work material.

Keywords

Galling Metal transfer Friction Stainless steel Tool steel DLC 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to acknowledge the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research for financial support via the programme Technical advancement through controlled tribofilms.

References

  1. 1.
    Lovato, G., Giraud, H., Van Der Heide, E., Stam, E.D., Heikkila, I., Akdut, N., Clarysse, F., Caenen, P.: Influence of Lubricants and Tool Materials upon Galling of Stainless Steels. IDDRG, Besançon (2005)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Andreasen, J.L., Bay, N., Andersen, M., Christensen, E., Bjerrum, N.: Screening the performance of lubricants for the ironing of stainless steel with a strip reduction test. Wear 207, 1–5 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Heikkilä, I.: Action of tool steel microstructure on wear progress in cold forming of stainless steel. In: PM2004 Powder Metallurgy World Congress & Exhibition, Wien (2004)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Heikkilä, I.: Influence of Tool Steel Microstructure on Galling Resistance Against Stainless Steel. International Conference Leeds-Lyon Symposium, Lyon (2003)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Karlsson, P., Eriksson, J., Gåård, A., Krakhmalev, P., Olsson, M., Bergström, J.: Galling resistance evaluation of tool steels by two different laboratory test methods for sheet metal forming. Lubr. Sci. 24, 263–272 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gåård, A.: Influence of tool microstructure on galling resistance. Tribol. Int. 57, 251–256 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Podgornik, B., Jerina, J.: Surface topography effect on galling resistance of coated and uncoated tool steel. Surf. Coat. Technol. 206, 2792–2800 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Schedin, E.: Galling mechanisms in sheet forming operations. Wear 179, 123–128 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Heinrichs, J., Olsson, M., Jacobson, S.: New understanding of the initiation of material transfer and transfer layer build-up in metal forming—in situ studies in the SEM. Wear 292–293, 61–73 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Heinrichs, J., Olsson, M., Jacobson, S.: Mechanisms of material transfer studied in situ in the SEM—explanations to the success of DLC coated tools in aluminium forming. Wear 292–293, 49–60 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Heinrichs, J., Jacobson, S.: Laboratory test simulation of aluminium cold forming—influence from PVD tool coatings on the tendency to galling. Surf. Coat. Technol. 204, 3606–3613 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kolasinski, K.W.: Surface Science: Foundations of Catalysis and Nanoscience. Wiley, Chichester (2002)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jannica Heinrichs
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mikael Olsson
    • 1
  • Staffan Jacobson
    • 1
  1. 1.Tribomaterials Group, The Ångström LaboratoryUppsala UniversityUppsalaSweden

Personalised recommendations