Tribology Letters

, Volume 50, Issue 3, pp 431–438 | Cite as

Initiation of Galling in Metal Forming: Differences Between Aluminium and Austenitic Stainless Steel Studied In Situ in the SEM

  • Jannica HeinrichsEmail author
  • Mikael Olsson
  • Staffan Jacobson
Original Paper


High friction and transfer of work material to tool surfaces constitute important industrial problems in forming of many metals and alloys. However, it is very hard to gain a deeper understanding of these phenomena by studying real forming operations. In this paper, we have tried to gain fundamental understanding by avoiding as much as possible of the complexity of real forming. This has been realised by studying the friction and material transfer between well-defined tool material surfaces; uncoated and DLC-coated tool steel, and a needle shaped austenitic stainless steel tip, in situ in the SEM. The tool materials were tested in two conditions; well polished and well polished with local intentional scratches. It was found that work material was immediately transferred to the tool steel surface. When passing an intentional scratch, the local transfer was on a much larger scale, and the friction was higher, but the effect was mostly local. For the polished DLC-coated surface, almost no work material was transferred and the friction was low. An intentional scratch in the polished DLC surface barely influenced the galling behaviour. The present results are discussed in the light of previously published results from an analogous study with aluminium as work material.


Galling Metal transfer Friction Stainless steel Tool steel DLC 



The authors would like to acknowledge the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research for financial support via the programme Technical advancement through controlled tribofilms.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jannica Heinrichs
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mikael Olsson
    • 1
  • Staffan Jacobson
    • 1
  1. 1.Tribomaterials Group, The Ångström LaboratoryUppsala UniversityUppsalaSweden

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