Springer Nature is making Coronavirus research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Effects of Glass-to-Rubber Transition on the Friction Properties of ZrO2 Reinforced Polybenzoxazine Nanocomposites

  • 386 Accesses

  • 13 Citations


The present work is a generic study to examine the effects of the glass-to-rubber transition of resin matrix on the friction and wear characteristics of zirconium oxide (ZrO2) reinforced polybenzoxazine nanocomposites, in relation to the content of ZrO2. The thermal and tribological properties of the nanocomposites were measured by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMA) and friction test, respectively. DMA results revealed that the storage modulus and T g values of the nanocomposites increased with increasing ZrO2 content to 4 wt%, due to the exceptional mechanical strength of ZrO2 particles and the interfacial adhesion between ZrO2 and matrix to restrict the segmental motion of polymer. The friction coefficient (COF) values as a function of applied load (50–750 N) for the nanocomposites under testing temperatures (50, 100, 200, 250, and 300 °C) were measured. Comparable to the pure resin, the nanocomposites possessed relatively higher COF values with the increase of applied pressure under varying temperatures, which resulted from the reinforcement of ZrO2. It is noted that the nanocomposites containing 4 wt% ZrO2 occupied relatively higher modulus and glass transition temperature, resulting in better capability to stabilize the friction coefficient and wear rate under the applied conditions. In addition, the friction mechanism of the nanocomposites were proposed based on the experimental and reference results.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10


  1. 1.

    Takeichi, T., Guo, Y., Rimdusit, S.: Performance improvement of polybenzoxazine by alloying with polyimide: effect of preparation method on the properties. Polymer 46(13), 4909–4916 (2005)

  2. 2.

    Yagci, Y., Kiskan, B., Ghosh, N.N.: Recent advancement on polybenzoxazine—a newly developed high performance thermoset. J. Polym. Sci. A 47(21), 5565–5576 (2009)

  3. 3.

    Ishida, H., Allen, D.J.: Gelation behavior of near-zero shrinkage polybenzoxazines. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 79(3), 406–417 (2001)

  4. 4.

    Kiskan, B., Ghosh, N.N., Yagci, Y.: Polybenzoxazine-based composites as high-performance materials. Polym. Int. 60(2), 167–177 (2011)

  5. 5.

    Carrasco, F., Pages, P.: Thermal degradation and stability of epoxy nanocomposites: Influence of montmorillonite content and cure temperature. Polym. Degrad. Stabil. 93(5), 1000–1007 (2008)

  6. 6.

    Wang, H., Lu, R., Huang, T., Ma, Y., Cong, P., Li, T.: Effect of grafted polytetrafluoroethylene nanoparticles on the mechanical and tribological performances of phenol resin. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 528, 6878–6886 (2011)

  7. 7.

    Song, H.J., Zhang, Z.Z.: Investigation of the tribological properties of polyfluo wax/polyurethane composite coating filled with nano-SiC or nano-ZrO2. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 426, 59–65 (2006)

  8. 8.

    Song, H.J., Zhang, Z.Z., Luo, Z.Z.: A study of tribological behaviors of the phenolic composite coating reinforced with carbon fibers. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 445–446, 593–599 (2007)

  9. 9.

    Xu, H., Feng, Z., Chen, J., Zhou, H.: Tribological behavior of the carbon fiber reinforced polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) composite coating under dry sliding and water lubrication. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 416, 66–73 (2006)

  10. 10.

    Yan, C., Fan, X.Y., Li, J.A., Shen, S.Z.: Study of surface-functionalized nano-SiO2/polybenzoxazine composites. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 120(3), 1525–1532 (2011)

  11. 11.

    Al-Turaif, H.A.: Effect of nano TiO2 particle size on mechanical properties of cured epoxy resin. Prog. Org. Coat. 69, 241–246 (2010)

  12. 12.

    Ma, J., Bai, M.: Effect of ZrO2 nanoparticles additive on the tribological behavior of multialkylated cyclopentanes. Tribol. Lett. 36(3), 191–198 (2009)

  13. 13.

    Kim, K.S., Heo, J.C., Kim, K.W.: Effects of temperature on the microscale adhesion behavior of thermoplastic polymer film. Tribol. Lett. 38(2), 97–106 (2010)

  14. 14.

    Saffar, A., Shojaei, A., Arjmand, M.: Theoretical and experimental analysis of the thermal, fade and wear characteristics of rubber-based composite friction materials. Wear 269(1–2), 145–151 (2010)

  15. 15.

    Arjmand, M., Shojaei, A.: Tribological characteristics of rubber-based friction materials. Tribol. Lett. 41(2), 325–336 (2011)

  16. 16.

    Wu, Y.Q., Zeng, M., Yu, L., Fan, L.R.: Synergistic effect of nano- and micro-meter size fibers on tribological properties of automotive brake lining. J. Reinf. Plast. Compos. 29(18), 2732–2743 (2010)

  17. 17.

    Ghosh, N.N., Kiskan, B., Yagci, Y.: Polybenzoxazines-new high performance thermosetting resins: synthesis and properties. Prog. Polym. Sci. 32(11), 1344–1391 (2007)

  18. 18.

    Deng, S., Hou, M., Yea, L.: Temperature-dependent elastic moduli of epoxies measured by DMA and their correlations to mechanical testing data. Polym. Test. 26, 803–813 (2007)

  19. 19.

    Fei, J., Li, H.J., Fu, Y.W., Qi, L.H., Zhang, Y.L.: Effect of phenolic resin content on performance of carbon fiber reinforced paper-based friction material. Wear 269, 534–540 (2010)

  20. 20.

    Pihan, S.A., Emmerling, S.G.J., Butt, H.J., Gutmann, J.S., Berger, R.: Nanowear in a nanocomposite reinforced polymer. Wear 271, 2852–2856 (2011)

  21. 21.

    Österle, W., Griepentrog, M., Gross, Th., Urban, I.: Chemical and microstructural changes induced by friction and wear of brakes. Wear 251(1-12), 1469–1476 (2001)

  22. 22.

    Fillot, N., Iordanoff, I., Berthier, Y.: Wear modeling and the third body concept. Wear 262(7–8), 949–957 (2007)

  23. 23.

    Ma, X., de Rooij, M.B., Schipper, D.J.: A load dependent friction model for fully plastic contact conditions. Wear 269, 790–796 (2010)

  24. 24.

    Greenwood, J.A., Williamson, J.B.P.: Contact of nominally flat surfaces. Proc. R. Soc. London A 295(1442), 300–319 (1966)

  25. 25.

    Elleuch, R., Elleuch, K., Abdelounis, H.B., Zahouani, H.: Surface roughness effect on friction behaviour of elastomeric material. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 465, 8–12 (2007)

  26. 26.

    Ishida, H., Lee, Y.H.: Synergism observed in polybenzoxazine and poly (ε-caprolactone) blends by dynamic mechanical and thermogravimetric analysis. Polymer 42, 6971–6979 (2001)

  27. 27.

    Kumar, M., Bijwe, J.: NAO friction materials with various metal powders: tribological evaluation on full-scale inertia dynamometer. Wear 269, 826–837 (2010)

  28. 28.

    Brizmer, V., Kligerman, Y., Etsion, I.: Elastic–plastic spherical contact under combined normal and tangential loading in full stick. Tribol. Lett. 25, 61–70 (2007)

Download references


The authors acknowledge the SRF for ROCS, State Education Ministry, P. R. China, the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China University of Geosciences (Wuhan) (contract grant number: CUGL090223), Hubei Provincial Department of Education (XD2010037), and the grant of the Opening Project of State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering (Sichuan University) (KF201106).

Author information

Correspondence to Ming Zeng or Shuen Hou.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Wu, Y., Zeng, M., Jin, H. et al. Effects of Glass-to-Rubber Transition on the Friction Properties of ZrO2 Reinforced Polybenzoxazine Nanocomposites. Tribol Lett 47, 389–398 (2012).

Download citation


  • Friction behavior
  • Nanocomposite
  • Friction mechanism
  • Thermal transition
  • Morphology