Tribology Letters

, Volume 41, Issue 1, pp 1–15 | Cite as

Role of Surface Texture, Roughness, and Hardness on Friction During Unidirectional Sliding

  • Pradeep L. Menezes
  • Kishore
  • Satish V. Kailas
  • Michael R. Lovell
Original Paper


In the present investigation, experiments were conducted by unidirectional sliding of pins made of FCC metals (Pb, Al, and Cu) with significantly different hardness values against the steel plates of various surface textures and roughness using an inclined pin-on-plate sliding apparatus in ambient conditions under both the dry and lubricated conditions. For a given material pair, it was observed that transfer layer formation and the coefficient of friction along with its two components, namely adhesion and plowing, are controlled by the surface texture of the harder mating surfaces and are less dependent of surface roughness (R a) of the harder mating surfaces. The effect of surface texture on the friction was attributed to the variation of the plowing component of friction for different surfaces. It was also observed that the variation of plowing friction as a function of hardness depends on surface textures. More specifically, the plowing friction varies with hardness of the soft materials for a given type of surface texture and it is independent of hardness of soft materials for other type of surface texture. These variations could be attributed to the extent of plane strain conditions taking place at the asperity level during sliding. It was also observed that among the surface roughness parameters, the mean slope of the profile, Δ a, correlated best with the friction. Furthermore, dimensionless quantifiable roughness parameters were formulated to describe the degree of plowing taking place at the asperity level.


Friction Surface roughness Surface texture Hardness 


  1. 1.
    Bowden, F.P., Childs, T.H.C.: Friction and deformation of clean metals at very low temperatures. Proc. R. Soc. A 312, 451–466 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Farhat, Z.N.: Contribution of crystallographic texturing to the sliding friction behaviour of FCC and HCP metals. Wear 250–251, 401–408 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Akagak, T., Rigney, D.A.: Sliding friction and wear of metals in vacuum. Wear 149(1–2), 353–374 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rasp, W., Wichern, C.M.: Effects of surface-topography directionality and lubrication condition on frictional behaviour during plastic deformation. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 125–126, 379–386 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Saha, P.K., Wilson, W.R.D., Timsit, R.S.: Influence of surface topography on the frictional characteristics of 3104 aluminum alloy sheet. Wear 197(1–2), 123–129 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Costa, H.L., Hutchings, I.M.: Effects of die surface patterning on lubrication in strip drawing. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 209(3), 1175–1180 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Menezes, P.L., Kishore, Kailas, S.V.: Effect of roughness parameter and grinding angle on coefficient of friction when sliding of Al–Mg alloy over EN8 steel. J. Tribol. 128(4), 697–704 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Menezes, P.L., Kishore, Kailas, S.V.: Effect of directionality of unidirectional grinding marks on friction and transfer layer formation of Mg on steel using inclined scratch test. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 429(1–2), 149–160 (2006)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lakshmipathy, R., Sagar, R.: Effect of die surface topography on die-work interfacial friction in open die forging. Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 32(5), 685–693 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Määttä, A., Vuoristo, P., Mäntylä, T.: Friction and adhesion of stainless steel strip against tool steels in unlubricated sliding with high contact load. Tribol. Int. 34(11), 779–786 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Staph, H.E., Ku, P.M., Carper, H.J.: Effect of surface roughness and surface texture on scuffing. Mech. Mach. Theory 8, 197–208 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Malayappan, S., Narayanasamy, R.: An experimental analysis of upset forging of aluminium cylindrical billets considering the dissimilar frictional conditions at flat die surfaces. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 23(9–10), 636–643 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Menezes, P.L., Kishore, Kailas, S.V.: Studies on friction and transfer layer using inclined scratch. Tribol. Int. 39(2), 175–183 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kumar, P.C., Menezes, P.L., Kailas, S.V.: Role of surface texture on friction under boundary lubricated conditions. Tribol. Online 3(1), 12–18 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Menezes, P.L., Kishore, Kailas, S.V.: On the effect of surface texture on friction and transfer layer formation—A study using Al and steel pair. Wear 265(11–12), 1655–1669 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gadelmawla, E.S., Koura, M.M., Maksoud, T.M.A., Elewa, I.M., Soliman, H.H.: Roughness parameters. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 123(1), 133–145 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sedlaček, M., Podgornik, B., Vižintin, J.: Influence of surface preparation on roughness parameters, friction and wear. Wear 266(3–4), 482–487 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Myers, N.O.: Characterization of surface roughness. Wear 5(3), 182–189 (1962)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wieleba, W.: The statistical correlation of the coefficient of friction and wear rate of PTFE composites with steel counterface roughness and hardness. Wear 252(9–10), 719–729 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Singh, R., Melkote, S.N., Hashimoto, F.: Frictional response of precision finished surfaces in pure sliding. Wear 258(10), 1500–1509 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Menezes, P.L., Kishore, Kailas, S.V.: Effect of surface topography on friction and transfer layer during sliding. Tribol. Online 3(1), 25–30 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lin, D.S., Wilman, H.: Friction, wear and surface hardness in abrasion of binary solid-solution alloys in the copper-gold system. Br. J. Appl. Phys. (J. Phys. D) 1(2), 561–571 (1968)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Moore, M.A., King, F.S.: Abrasive wear of brittle solids. Wear 60(1), 123–140 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Moore, A.J.W., McG. Tegart, W.J.: Relation between friction and hardness. Proc. R. Soc. A 212, 452–458 (1952)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Menezes, P.L., Kishore, Kailas, S.V.: Studies on friction and formation of transfer layer when Al-4Mg alloy pins slid at various numbers of cycles on steel plates of different surface texture. Wear 267(1–4), 525–534 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Menezes, P.L., Kishore, Kailas, S.V., Lovell, M.R.: Influence of alloying element addition on friction and transfer layer formation in Al–Mg system: role of surface texture. In: ASME/STLE 2009 international joint tribology conference, pp. 459–461 (2009)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Koura, M.M., Omar, M.A.: The effect of surface parameters on friction. Wear 73(2), 235–246 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bhushan, B., Nosonovsky, M.: Scale effects in dry and wet friction, wear, and interface temperature. Nanotechnology 15, 749–761 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Torrance, A.A.: Using profilometry for the quantitative assessment of tribological function: PC-based software for friction and wear prediction. Wear 181–183(1), 397–404 (1995)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pradeep L. Menezes
    • 1
    • 3
  • Kishore
    • 1
  • Satish V. Kailas
    • 2
  • Michael R. Lovell
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Materials EngineeringIndian Institute of ScienceBangaloreIndia
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringIndian Institute of ScienceBangaloreIndia
  3. 3.Department of Industrial EngineeringUniversity of Wisconsin-MilwaukeeMilwaukeeUSA

Personalised recommendations