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Tribology Letters

, Volume 35, Issue 3, pp 191–203 | Cite as

Improved Elastic Contact Model Accounting for Asperity and Bulk Substrate Deformation

  • Chang-Dong Yeo
  • Raja R. Katta
  • Andreas A. Polycarpou
Original Paper

Abstract

An improved elastic contact model for a single asperity system is proposed accounting for both the effects of bulk substrate and asperity deformations. The asperity contact stiffness is based on the Hertzian solution for spherical contact, and the bulk substrate stiffness on the solution of Hertzian pressure on a circular region of the elastic half-space. Depending on the magnitude of the applied load, as well as the geometrical and physical properties of the asperity and bulk materials, the bulk substrate could have considerable contribution to the overall contact stiffness. The proposed single asperity model is generalized using two parameters based on physical and geometrical properties, and is also verified using finite element analysis. A parametric study for a practical range of geometric and physical parameters is performed using finite element analysis to determine the range of validity of the proposed model and also to compare it with the Hertz contact model. The single asperity model is extended to rough surfaces in contact and the contact stiffness from the proposed model and the simpler Greenwood–Williamson asperity model are compared to experimental measurements.

Keywords

Contact mechanics Surface roughness Magnetic data storage Thin solid film Finite element analysis 

List of symbols

An

Nominal contact area

Ar

Real contact area (rough surface contact)

d

Separation based on asperity heights (rough surface contact)

E

Effective elastic modulus between asperity and bulk substrate

Ea

Asperity effective elastic modulus

Easperity

Asperity elastic modulus

Eb

Bulk substrate effective elastic modulus

Ebulk

Bulk substrate elastic modulus

F

Contact force

FHertz

Contact force computed based on Hertz model

g

Generalized function

H

Hardness

ha

Asperity height

h

Separation based on surface heights (rough surface contact)

K

Hardness coefficient

k

Composite spring constant between asperity and bulk substrate

ka

Asperity spring constant

kb

Bulk substrate spring constant

kr

Contact stiffness in rough surface contact

Pc

Contact force (rough surface contact)

p0

Maximum contact pressure

R

Asperity radius

r

Radial distance from the center of contact

rb

Radius of circular contact region on top of bulk substrate

Uz

Normal displacement of the contact surface

u

Asperity height measured from the mean of asperity heights

δ

Normal applied displacement (or surface approach)

δa

Asperity deformation

δb

Bulk substrate deformation

η

Areal density of asperities

κ

Physical index parameter

νa

Asperity Poisson’s ratio

νb

Bulk substrate Poisson’s ratio

ξ

Geometrical index parameter

σ

Standard deviation of asperity heights

ϕ

Distribution function of asperity heights

ω

Surface interference

ωc

Critical interference at the inception of plastic deformation

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by grants from the National Science Foundation under Grant number CAREER CMS-0239232 and the Information Storage Industry Consortium (INSIC) EHDR Program. The roughness measurements were performed at the Center for Microanalysis of Materials at the University of Illinois, which is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant DEFG02-96-366 ER45439.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chang-Dong Yeo
    • 1
    • 2
  • Raja R. Katta
    • 1
  • Andreas A. Polycarpou
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Science and EngineeringUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignUrbanaUSA
  2. 2.Seagate Technology LLCShakopeeUSA

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