Tribology Letters

, 33:63 | Cite as

A Novel Method for Quantitative Determination of Ultra-low Wear Rates of Materials, Part II: Effects of Surface Roughness and Roughness Orientation on Wear

  • Y.-R. Li
  • D. Shakhvorostov
  • W. N. Lennard
  • P. R. Norton
Original Paper

Abstract

A novel method of measurement of the very low wear-rates of materials in the ultra-mild wear regime, which involves the use of implanted gold as a marker, was used to understand the effects of surface roughness and roughness orientation on wear under reciprocating sliding conditions. AISI 1095 steel coupons with various Vickers hardness values and different surface roughness and roughness orientation relative to the sliding direction were tested under the same sliding conditions. It was found that parallel sliding causes more wear compared with transverse sliding for the harder samples (Vickers hardness (VH); 450 HV, 650 HV and 1000 HV). Furthermore, the average friction coefficient of parallel sliding is also higher than that of transverse sliding for these samples. Severe wear takes place when the samples are too soft (250 HV), resulting in the complete loss of implanted gold. Surface topographic images were taken before and after the wear tests. It was found that parallel sliding dramatically increases the surface roughness, while transverse sliding does not increase the surface roughness for harder samples (450 HV, 650 HV and 1000 HV). For the soft sample (250 HV), the surface roughness increases significantly under parallel or transverse sliding.

Keywords

Surface roughness Wear/failure testing devices Wear mechanisms 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge Mr. Jack Hendriks of Tandetron Laboratory, the University of Western Ontario, for help with RBS measurement. The authors also thank Q. Jane Wang, Department of mechanical engineering Northwestern University, for the insightful discussion and her encouragement of this work.

References

  1. 1.
    Nakada, M.: Trends in engine technology and tribology. Tribol. Int. 27, 3–8 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wakuri, Y., Hamatake, T., Soejima, M., Kitahara, T.: Piston ring friction in internal-combustions engines. Tribol. Int. 25, 299–308 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ting, L.L., Mayer, J.E.: Piston ring lubrication and cylinder bore wear analysis, Part I—Theory. Trans. ASME J. Lubr. Tech. 86, 305–314 (1974)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Michail, S.K., Barber, G.C.: Effects of roughness on piston ring lubrication Part I: model development. Tribol. Trans. 38, 19–26 (1995). doi: 10.1080/10402009508983375 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Michail, S.K., Barber, G.C.: The effects of roughness on piston ring lubrication Part II: the relationship between cylinder wall surface topography and oil film thickness. Tribol. Trans. 38, 173–177 (1995). doi: 10.1080/10402009508983394 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Martini, A., Zhu, D., Wang, Q.: Friction reduction in mixed lubrication. Tribol. Lett. 28, 139–147 (2007). doi: 10.1007/s11249-007-9258-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nakano, M., Korenaga, A., Korenaga, A., Miyake, K., Murakami, T., Ando, Y., Usami, H., Sasaki, S.: Applying micro-texture to cast iron surfaces to reduce the friction coefficient under lubricated conditions. Tribol. Lett. 28, 131–137 (2007). doi: 10.1007/s11249-007-9257-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ronen, A., Etsion, I., Kligerman, Y.: Friction-reducing surface-texturing in reciprocating automotive components. Tribol. Trans. 44, 359–366 (2001). doi: 10.1080/10402000108982468 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Choo, J.W., Olver, A.V., Spikes, H.A.: The influence of transverse roughness in thin film, mixed elastohydrodynamic lubrication. Tribol. Int., First International Conference on Advanced Tribology (iCAT 2004). 40(2), 220–232 (2007)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Li, Y.-R., Shakhvorostov, D., Pereira, G., Lachenwitzer, A., Lennard, W.N., Norton, P.R.: A novel method for quantitative determination of ultra-low wear rates of materials, Part I: on steels. Tribol. Lett. (2008)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Slavov, V.I., Popkova, N.A., Betsofen, S.Y.: Recrystallization, structure, texture and properties of pipe steel rolled at wide temperature range. Mater. Sci. Forum Pt.1, 581–587 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Grachev, S.V., Mal’tseva, L.A., Zhuikov, O.V., Gvozdovskii, V.P., Shlyapnikov, S.N., Emel’yanov, A.F.: Effect of heat treatment on the structure and properties of cast steel shot. Metal Sci. Heat Treat. 48, 166–169 (2006). doi: 10.1007/s11041-006-0063-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sverdlin, A.V., Ness, A.R.: Fundamental concepts in steel heat treatment, 2nd edn, pp. 121–164. Marcel Dekker, New York (2007)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hironaka, S.: Boundary lubrication and lubricants, Tokyo Institute of Technology, http://www.threebond.co.jp/en/technical/technicalnews/pdf/tech09.pdf (2007)
  15. 15.
    Rigney, D.A.: Transfer, mixing and associated chemical and mechanical processes during the sliding of ductile materials. Wear 245, 1–9 (2000). doi: 10.1016/S0043-1648(00)00460-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Shakhvorostov, D., Gleising, B., Büscher, R., Dudzinski, W., Fischer, A., Scherge, M.: Microstructure of tribologically induced nanolayers produced at ultra-low wear rates. Wear 263, 1259–1265 (2007). doi: 10.1016/j.wear.2007.01.127 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shakhvorostov, D., Li, J., Nold, E., Beuchle, G., Scherge, M.: Influence of Cu grain size on running-in related phenomena. Tribol. Lett. 28(3), 307–318 (2007). doi: 10.1007/s11249-007-9274-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Y.-R. Li
    • 1
    • 2
  • D. Shakhvorostov
    • 1
  • W. N. Lennard
    • 1
  • P. R. Norton
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of Western OntarioLondonCanada
  2. 2.Chevron Oronite Company LLCRichmondUSA

Personalised recommendations