Tribology Letters

, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp 83–90 | Cite as

Nanowear Mapping: A Novel Atomic Force Microscopy Based Approach for Studying Nanoscale Wear at High Sliding Velocities


Most micro/nanoelectromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS) devices and components such as microgears and micromotors operate at very high sliding velocities (of the order of tens of mm/s to few m/s). Nanoscale tribology and mechanics of these devices is crucial for evaluating reliability and failure issues, including those stemming from high wear. We have developed a novel AFM based approach for studying nanoscale wear at sliding velocities up to 10 mm/s. The technique is demonstrated by mapping wear of silicon resulting from two- and three-body abrasions, and that of diamondlike carbon (DLC) resulting from phase transformation of DLC to a graphite-like phase. The novel AFM based approach for nanowear mapping provides a reliable as well as a fast means for investigating wear on the nanoscale as a function of normal load and sliding velocity.

Key Words

nanowear mapping atomic force microscope phase transformation 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Maboudian, R., Howe, R.T. 1997J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B15120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bhushan, B. 1998Tribology Issues and Opportunities in MEMSKluwer Academic PublishersDordrecht, NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bhushan, B. 2003J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B2122622296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bhushan, B. 1999Handbook of Micro/Nanotribology2CRC PressBoca Raton, FLGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    D. Tabor, Proc. Int. Conf. Tribology in the 80s (NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, NASA, 1983) p. 1Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bowden, F.P., Tabor, D. 1950The Friction and Lubrication of Solids, Part IClarendon PressOxford, UKGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bowden, F.P., Tabor, D. 1964The Friction and Lubrication of Solids, Part IIClarendon PressOxford, UKGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Singer, I.L., Pollock, H.M. 1992Fundamentals of Friction: Macroscopic and Microscopic Processes, NATO Series E: Applied Sciences, 220KluwerBostonGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bhushan, B. 1999Principles and Applications of TribologyWileyNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lim, S.C., Ashby, M.F. 1987Acta Metall.35124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mate, C.M., McClelland, G.M., Erlandsson, R., Chiang, S. 1987Phys. Rev. Lett.5919421945CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ruan, J., Bhushan, B. 1994ASME J. Tribol.116378388Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Koinkar, V., Bhushan, B. 1996J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A1423782391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bennewitz, R., Meyer, E., Bammerlin, M., Gyalog, T., Gnecco, E. 2001Bhushan, B. eds. Fundamentals of Tribology and Bridging the Gap between the Macro- and Micro/NanoscalesKluwer Academic PublishersDordrecht, Netherlands5366Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bhushan, B., Liu, H. 2001Phys. Rev. B632454121 to 11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Liu, H., Bhushan, B. 2003Ultramicroscopy97321340CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gnecco, E., Bennewitz, R., Meyer, E. 2002Phys. Rev. Lett.88215501-1215501-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gnecco, E., Bennewitz, R., Pfeiffer, O., Socoliuc, A., Meyer, E. 2004Bhushan, B. eds. Springer Handbook of NanotechnologySpringerHeidelberg, Germany631660Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tambe, N.S., Bhushan, B. 2004Nanotechnology1515611570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tambe, N.S., Bhushan, B. 2005J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.38764773CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tambe, N.S., Bhushan, B. 2005J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A23830835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tambe, N.S., Bhushan, B. 2005Nanotechnology1623092324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tambe, N.S., Bhushan, B. 2005Scripta Mater.52751755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sundararajan, S., Bhushan, B. 2001J. Mater. Res.16437445Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Liu, H., Bhushan, B. 2002Ultramicroscopy91185202CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Anonymous (1999), Nanoscope® command reference manual, Version 4.42, Appendix D: LithographyGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Senturia, S.D. 2001Microsystem DesignKluwerBostonGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Madou, M. 2002Fundamentals of Microfabrication: the Science of Miniaturization2Boca RatonFLGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bhushan, B. 2004Springer Handbook of NanotechnologySpringerHeidelberg, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Grill, A. 1997Surf. Coat. Technol94–95507513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bhushan, B. 1999Diamond Relat. Mater.819852015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bouhacina, T., Aime, J.P., Gauthier, S., Michel, D. 1997Phys. Rev. B5676947703CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Marti, O., Krotil, H.-U. 2001Bhushan, B. eds. Fundamentals of Tribology and Bridging the Gap between the Macro- and Micro/NanoscalesKluwer Academic PublishersDordrecht, Netherlands121135Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Riedo, E., Levy, F., Brune, H. 2002Phys. Rev. Lett.88185505-1185505-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bouquet, L., Charlaix, E., Ciliberto, S., Crassous, J. 1998Nature396735737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mizuhara, K., Hsu, S.M.,  et al. 1992Dowson, D. eds. Wear ParticlesElsevier Science PublishersAmsterdam, Netherlands323328Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Riedo, E., Gnecco, E., Bennewitz, R., Meyer, E., Brune, H. 2003Phys. Rev. Lett.91084502-1084502-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Voevodin (1996) Dia. Relat. Mat. 5:1264–1296Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Muhlstein, C.L., Brown, S.B., Ritchie, R.O. 2001J. Microelectromech. Syst.10593600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Anonymous (2004), Scanning Probe Image Processor™, Version, Image Metrology A/S, DenmarkGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    DeVecchio, D., Bhushan, B. 1998Rev. Sci. Instr6936183624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bhushan, B., Goldade, A.V. 2000Appl. Surf. Sci.157373381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bhushan, B., Goldade, A.V. 2000Wear244104117CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nanotribology Laboratory for Information Storage and MEMS/NEMSThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA

Personalised recommendations