Advertisement

Tribology Letters

, Volume 18, Issue 3, pp 261–278 | Cite as

Spatially resolved nanoscale chemical and mechanical characterization of ZDDP antiwear films on aluminum–silicon alloys under cylinder/bore wear conditions

  • M. A. Nicholls
  • P. R. Norton
  • G. M. Bancroft
  • M. Kasrai
  • G. De. Stasio
  • L. M. Wiese
Article

summary

Understanding the lubrication of aluminum–silicon (Al–Si) alloys (>18 Si) under conditions similar to those in the cylinder/bore system is vital to determining their applicability to current engine designs. A novel investigation of the location of zinc-dialkyl-dithiophosphate (ZDDPs) antiwear (AW) film formation on an Al–Si alloy has been performed using X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis, X-ray photoelectron emission spectroscopy (X-PEEM), and imaging nanoindentation techniques. A study of the initial stages of wear (10 min) to prolonged rubbing (60 min) was performed. The findings show that the film forms primarily on the raised silicon grains and is consistent with a zinc polyphosphate glass. The film has an elastic modulus of ~70 GPa and a similar elastic response to a ZDDP AW film formed on steel under the same conditions. This provides the first direct observation and characterization of a ZDDP antiwear film on Al–Si alloys using spatially resolved chemical and mechanical techniques at the nanoscale.

Keywords

XANES spectroscopy zinc dialky-dithiophosphate aluminum alloy silicon wear X-ray spectromicroscopy mechanical properties nanoindentation phosphorus 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Reuss, L.E., Hughes, C.N. 1971SAE Congress710150577Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    F.J. Kneisler, D.A. Martens and R.W. Midgley, SAE Congress, (1971) 520.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. Platt, J. Auto. Eng. (1971) 3.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zurecki, Z., Garg, D., Bowe, D. 1996Suf. Eng.12217Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Edrisy, A., Perry, T., Cheng, Y.T., Alpas, A.T. 2001Wear1023250251Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nicholls, M.A., Do, T., Norton, P.R., Bancroft, G.M., Kasrai, M., Capehart, T.W., Cheng, Y.-T., Perry, T. 2003Tribol. Lett.15241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jacobson, D.M., Ogilvy, A.J. W. 2003Mat.-wiss. u. Werkstofftech.34381Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sheasby, J.S., Caughlin, T.A., Mackwood, W.A. 1996Wear201209Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sheasby, J.S., Caughlin, T.A., Mackwood, W.A. 1996Wear196100Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Grossiord, C., Martin, J.M., Mogne, T., Palermo, T. 1999Tribal Lett.6171Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Xue, Q.J., Bai, M.W. 1996Wear19566Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Martin, J.M., Mansot, J.L., Berbezier, I., Dexpert, H. 1984Wear93117Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    J.C. Bell and K.M. Delargy, in: The 6th International Congress on Tribology (“Eurotrib ‘93”, 1993).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fuller, M., Yin, Z., Kasrai, M., Bancroft, G.M., Yamaguchi, E.S., Ryason, P.R., Willermet, P.A., Tan, K.H. 1997Tribol. Int.30305Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bancroft, G.M., Kasrai, M., Fuller, M., Yin, Z., Fyfe, K., Tan, K.H. 1997Tribol. Lett.347Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yin, Z., Kasrai, M., Fuller, M., Bancroft, G.M., Fyfe, K., Tan, K.H. 1997Wear202172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ferrari, E.S., Roberts, K.J., Adams, D. 1999Wear236246Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ferrari, E.S., Roberts, K.J., Adams, D. 2002Wear253759Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. Fuller, Z. Yin, M. Kasrai, G.M. Bancroft, K. Fyfe and K.H. Tan, in: Proceedings of International Tribology Conference, Yokohama, 1995, Vol. 2, (Japanese Society of Tribology, Tokyo, 1996) 1113.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yin, Z., Kasrai, M., Bancroft, G.M., Laycock, K.F., Tan, K.H. 1993Tribol. Int.26383Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    M. Kasrai, M. Fuller, M. Scaini, Z. Yin, R.W. Brunner, G.M. Bancroft, M.E. Fleet, K. Fyfe and K.H. Tan, in: Lubricants and Lubrication: Lubrication at the Frontier, Vol. 30, eds. D. Dowson, et al. (Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, 1995) 659.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Nicholls, M.A., Norton, P.R., Bancroft, G.M., Kasrai, M., Do, T., Fraser, B.H., Stasio, G. De 2004Tribol. Lett.17205Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pidduck, A.J., Smith, G.C. 1997Wear212254Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Warren, O.L., Graham, J.F., Norton, P.R., Houston, J.E., Michalske, T.A. 1998Tribol. Lett.4189Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Graham, J.F., McCague, C., Norton, P.R. 1999Tribol. Lett.6149Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    S. Bec and A. Tonck, in: Tribology Series: Lubricants and Lubrication, Vol. 30, eds. D. Dowson, C. Taylor, T. Childs and G. Dalmaz (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1996) 173.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bec, S., Tonck, A., Georges, J.M., Coy, R.C., Bell, J.C., Roper, G.W. 1999Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A.4554181Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Aktary, M., McDermott, M.T., McAlpine, G.A. 2002Tribol. Lett.12155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ye, J., Kano, M., Yasuda, Y. 2002Tribol. Lett.1341Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Jacobsen, C., Wirick, S., Flynn, G., Zimba, C. 2000J. Micros.197173Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Morin, C., Ikeura-Sekiguchi, H., Tyliszczak, T., Cornelius, R., Brash, J.L., Hitchcock, A.P., Scholl, A., Nolting, F., Appel, G., Winesett, D.A., Kaznacheyev, K., Ade, H. 2001J. Elect. Spectrosc. Rel. Phen.121203Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Koprinarov, I.N., Hitchcock, A.P., McCrory, C.T., Childs, R.F. 2002J. Phys. Chem. B.1065358Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Stohr, J., Anders, S. 2000IBM J. Res. Develop.44535Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Canning, G.W., Fuller, M.L., Bancroft, G.M., Kasrai, M., Cutler, J.N., Stasio, G., Gilbert, B. 1999Tribol. Lett.6159Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Nicholls, M.A., Bancroft, G.M., Norton, P.R., Kasrai, M., Stasio, G., Frazer, B.H., Wiese, L.M. 2004Tribol. Lett.17245Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    A. Tonck, S. Bec, J.M. Georges, R.C. Coy, J.C. Bell and G.W. Roper, in: Tribology Series: Lubrication at the Frontier, Vol. 36, ed. D. Dowson (Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, 1999) 39.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Konishi, T., Klaus, E.E., Duda, J.L. 1996Tribol Trans.39811Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wan, Y., Cao, L.L., Xue, Q.J. 1997Tribol. Int.30767Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Fuller, M., Kasrai, M., Sheasby, J.S., Bancroft, G.M., Fyfe, K., Tan, K.H. 1995Tribol. Lett.1367Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Nicholls, M.A., Norton, P.R., Bancroft, G.M., Kasrai, M. 2004Wear257311Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wallfahrer, U., Bowen, L. 1997J. Soc. Tribol. Lubricat. Eng.5323Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Oliver, W.C., Pharr, G.M. 1992J. Mater. Res.71564Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kulkarni, A.V., Bhushan, B. 1996Mater. Lett.29221Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Doerner, M.F., Nix, W.D. 1986J. Mater. Res.1601Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Malzbender, J., With, G. de 2000Surf. Coat. Technol.13560Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Chudoba, T., Schawarzer, N., Richter, F. 2000Surf. Coat. Technol.1279Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Pharr, G.M., Oliver, W.C. 1992MRS Bull.1728Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Korsunsky, A.M., McGurk, M.R., Bull, S.J., Page, T.F. 1998Surf. Coat. Technol.99171Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Chudoba, T., Schwarzer, N., Richter, F., Beck, U. 2000Thin Solid Films366377378Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Malzbender, J., With, G. de 2000Surf. Coat. Technol.127266Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bec, S., Tonck, A., Georges, J.-M., Loubet, J.-L. 1996Phil. Mag. A741061Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    A. Rar, H. Song and G.M. Pharr, in: Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, Thin Films: Stresses and Mechanical Properties IX, Vol. 695, eds. C.S. Ozkan, L.B. Freund, R.C. Cammarata and H. Gao (Materials Research Society, Warrendale, PA, 2002) 431.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Gao, H., Chiu, C.-H., Lee, J. 1992Int. J. Solids Struct.292471Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kasrai, M., Yin, Z., Bancroft, G.M., Tan, K. 1993J. Vac. Sci. Technol.A112694Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Frazer, B.H., Girasole, M., Wiese, L.M., Franz, T., Stasio, G. 2003Ultramicroscopy9987Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Frazer, B.H., Gilbert, B., Sonderegger, B.R., Stasio, G. 2003Surf. Sci.537161Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kasrai, M., Lennard, W.N., Brunner, R.W., Bancroft, G.M., Bardwell, J.A., Tan, K.H. 1996Appl. Surf. Sci.99303Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Croll, L.M., Britten, J.F., Morin, C., Hitchcock, A.P., Stoever, H.D. H. 2003J. Synchro. Rad.10265Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    A.P. Hitchcock, P. Hitchcock, C. Jacobsen, C. Zimba, B. Loo, E. Rotenberg, J. Denlinger and R. Kneedler, aXis2000—program available from http://unicorn.mcmaster.ca/aXis2000.html (1997).Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Gaarenstroom, S.W. 1997J. Vac. Sci. Technol.A15470Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Li, D., Bancroft, G.M., Kasrai, M., Fleet, M.E., Feng, X.H., Tan, K.H. 1994Am. Mineralogists79785Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Li, D., Fleet, M.E., Bancroft, G.M., Kasrai, M., Pan, Y. 1995J. Non-Cryst. Solids188181Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Chen, J.M., Simons, J.K., Tan, K.H., Rosenberg, R.A. 1993Phys. Rev. B.4810047Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Yin, Z., Kasrai, M., Bancroft, G.M., Tan, K.H., Feng, X. 1995Phys. Rev. B.51742Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Suominen Fuller, M.L., Kasrai, M., Bancroft, G.M., Fyfe, K., Tan, K.H. 1998Tribol. Int.31627Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Coy, R.C., Jones, R.B. 1981ASLE Trans.2477Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Dickert, J.J., Rowe, C.N. 1967J. Org. Chem.32647Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Syed Asif, S.A., Wahl, K.J., Colton, R.J., Warren, O.L. 2001J. Appl. Phys.901192Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Pethica, J.B., Oliver, W.C. 1987Phys. Scr.1761Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Syed Asif, S.A., Wahl, K.J., Colton, R.J. 1999Rev. Sci. Instr.702408Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    K.J. Wahl, S.A. Syed Asif and R.J. Colton, in: Interfacial Properties on the Submicrometer Scale, Vol. 781, eds. J. Frommer and R.M. Overney (American Chemical Society, Washington DC, 2001) 198.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. A. Nicholls
    • 1
  • P. R. Norton
    • 1
  • G. M. Bancroft
    • 1
  • M. Kasrai
    • 1
  • G. De. Stasio
    • 2
  • L. M. Wiese
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of Western OntarioOntarioCanada
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA
  3. 3.Synchrotron Radiation CenterUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonStoughtonUSA

Personalised recommendations