Tribology Letters

, Volume 18, Issue 3, pp 261–278 | Cite as

Spatially resolved nanoscale chemical and mechanical characterization of ZDDP antiwear films on aluminum–silicon alloys under cylinder/bore wear conditions

  • M. A. Nicholls
  • P. R. Norton
  • G. M. Bancroft
  • M. Kasrai
  • G. De. Stasio
  • L. M. Wiese


Understanding the lubrication of aluminum–silicon (Al–Si) alloys (>18 Si) under conditions similar to those in the cylinder/bore system is vital to determining their applicability to current engine designs. A novel investigation of the location of zinc-dialkyl-dithiophosphate (ZDDPs) antiwear (AW) film formation on an Al–Si alloy has been performed using X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis, X-ray photoelectron emission spectroscopy (X-PEEM), and imaging nanoindentation techniques. A study of the initial stages of wear (10 min) to prolonged rubbing (60 min) was performed. The findings show that the film forms primarily on the raised silicon grains and is consistent with a zinc polyphosphate glass. The film has an elastic modulus of ~70 GPa and a similar elastic response to a ZDDP AW film formed on steel under the same conditions. This provides the first direct observation and characterization of a ZDDP antiwear film on Al–Si alloys using spatially resolved chemical and mechanical techniques at the nanoscale.


XANES spectroscopy zinc dialky-dithiophosphate aluminum alloy silicon wear X-ray spectromicroscopy mechanical properties nanoindentation phosphorus 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. A. Nicholls
    • 1
  • P. R. Norton
    • 1
  • G. M. Bancroft
    • 1
  • M. Kasrai
    • 1
  • G. De. Stasio
    • 2
  • L. M. Wiese
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of Western OntarioOntarioCanada
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA
  3. 3.Synchrotron Radiation CenterUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonStoughtonUSA

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