Assays of the production of harmful substances by genetically modified oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) plants in accordance with regulations for evaluating the impact on biodiversity in Japan
Environmental risk assessment of transgenic crops is implemented under the Cartagena Protocol domestic law in accordance with guidelines for implementing the assessment established by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) and the Ministry of Environment (MOE) in Japan. Environmental risk assessments of transgenic crops are implemented based on the concept of ‘substantial equivalence’ to conventional crops. A unique requirement in Japan to monitor the production of harmful substances, or allelochemicals, is unparalleled in other countries. The potential for allelochemicals to be secreted from the roots of transgenic crops to affect other plants or soil microflora or for substances in the plant body to affect other plants after dying out must be evaluated. We evaluated the allelopathic potential of seven transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) lines that express glufosinate tolerance in terms of substantial equivalence to conventional oilseed rape lines, and established evaluation methods. Our results indicate no potential production of allelochemicals for any of the seven transgenic oilseed rape lines compared with conventional oilseed rape lines.
KeywordsTransgenic oilseed rape Brassica napus L. Harmful substances Allelopathy
The authors wish to thank Dr. Shoji Miyazaki for advice and support concerning assay design and data analysis.
- Eckes P, Vijtewaal B, Donn G (1989) Synthetic gene confers resistance to the broad spectrum herbicide L-phosphinothricin in plants. J Cell Biochem Suppl 13:334Google Scholar
- Fujii Y, Shibuya T (1991a) A new bioassay for allelopathy with agar medium I. Assessment of allelopathy from litter leacheate by sandwich method. Weed Res Jpn 36(Sup.):150–151 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
- Fujii Y, Shibuya T (1991b) A new bioassay for allelopathy with agar medium II. Mixed culture of allelopathic candidates with acceptor plants in agar medium. Weed Res Jpn 36(sup):152–153 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
- Fujii Y, Furubayashi A, Hiradate S (2005) Rhizosphere soil method: a new bioassay to evaluate allelopathy in the field. In: Proceedings of the 4th world congress on allelopathy, pp 490–492Google Scholar
- Furubayashi A, Hiradate S, Araya H, Fujii Y (2003) Method for bioassay to evaluate the allelopathic activity in rhizoshere soil. J Weed Sci Tech 48(Sup):142–143 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
- Götz W, Dorn E, Ebert E, Leist KH, Köcher H (1983) Hoe 39866, a new non-selective herbicide: Chemical and toxicological properties—mode of action and metabolism. Asia Pacific Weed Science Society, 9th conference, Manila, S. pp 401–404Google Scholar
- Itani T, Hirai K, Fujii Y, Kohda H, Tamaki M (1998) Screening for allelopathic activity among weeds and medicinal plants using the “Sandwich Method”. J Weed Sci Tech 43:258–266 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
- Ministry of Agriculture, forestry and fisheries (MAFF) and Ministry of Environment (MOE) (2004) Concerning the Application for Approval of Type 1 Use Regulations with regard to the genetically modified plants, the production or circulation of which falls within the jurisdiction of the Minister of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. http://www.bch.biodic.go.jp/download/en_law/type1_maff_plant_ver1.doc
- Nakahisa K, Tsuzuki E, Terao H, Kosemura S (1994) Study on the allelopathy of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). II. Isolation and identification of allelopathic substances in alfalfa. Jpn J Crop Sci 63:278–284Google Scholar
- Reiss B, Sprengel R, Schaller H (1984) Protein fusions with the kanamycin resistance gene from transposon Tn5. The EMBO J 3:3317–3322Google Scholar
- Thompson C, Van Montagu M, Leemans J (1987) Engineering herbicide resistance in plants by expression of a detoxifying enzyme. The EMBO J 6:2513–2518Google Scholar